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回顾“低代码”历史发展,是技术进步了还是倒退了?

2021-11-25 17:29:34 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"低代码开发可以说是最近IT技术圈的顶流,2014年之前还没有“低代码”这个术语,19年之前几乎没人关注低代码,但从19年到现在(2021年11月)的2年时间,低代码的百度搜索指数增长了10倍,可见这个领域的受关注程度正在与日俱增。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"织信之前的文章,曾介绍过低代码开发的历史,这次让我们再次回顾历史,因为回顾历史可以让我们更好地把握未来发展的趋势,看清那些在技术演进过程中不变的东西。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"什么是低代码?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"“低代码”是一种可视化编程方法,允许企业不必通过编写代码而是通过图形界面快速搭建应用程序。 虽然“低代码开发”这个术语是在2014年由知名市场研究机构Forrester为了描述这一类服务提供商而创造的,但低代码背后的想法并不新鲜。在这篇文章中,我们将看到这种模式是如何随着时间的推移而发展的,以及它所面临的问题。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"目录:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"1970年-1990年:第四代编程语言(4GL,Fourth-Generation Programming Language)","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"1990年:快速应用程序开发(RAD,Rapid Application Development)","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2001年:模型驱动架构(MDA,Model-Driven Architecture)","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2007年:移动平台(Mobile Platform)","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2014年:低代码与低代码开发平台","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2020年:数字化转型的迫切需要","attrs":{}}]}]}],"attrs":{}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"1970年-1990年:第四代编程语言","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"低代码开发平台可以追溯到第四代编程语言——这个概念是在20世纪70年代到90年代发展起来的,与第三代编程语言(3GL)的大部分开发重叠。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"第三代编程语言:C, C++, Java, Python, PHP, Perl, C#, BASIC, Pascal, Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"第四代编程语言:ABAP, Unix Shell, SQL, PL/SQL, Oracle Reports, RJames Martin在他1982年出版的《Applications Development Without Programmers》中,认为4GL技术(如RAMIS和FOCUS)向更广泛的人群开放了开发环境,并使非程序员能够自己创建应用程序。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"第四代编程语言指的是非过程的高级规范语言,包括支持数据库管理、报告生成、数学优化、图形用户界面(GUI)开发和web开发。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"1990年:快速应用程序开发","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"作为对瀑布模型的响应,当使用Visual Basic、Delphi和Oracle Forms等可视化编程工具“组装”桌面应用程序的概念开始流行时,我们看到快速应用程序开发(RAD)在20世纪90年代获得良好的发展势头。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"瀑布模型是软件开发行业长期使用的计划驱动过程,它是在20世纪七八十年代发展起来的,基于传统的工程模式。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"RAD工具作为易于学习的开发环境而表现突出,其核心理念是:最终用户应该首先关注GUI,并逐步添加业务逻辑。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"然而,RAD工具有其局限性:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"numberedlist","attrs":{"start":"1","normalizeStart":1},"content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":1,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"它们通常是私有的商业软件,这意味着绑定在特定的开发环境中。目标环境通常是指定的,例如VB/Delphi开发的程序通常只能在Microsoft Windows、Oracle应用服务器和Oracle Forms数据库的环境中运行。","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":2,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"因为缺乏模块化,团队在一个应用程序上一起合作开发是比较困难的,或者说有很多限制条件。","attrs":{}}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":3,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"RAD工具(如Visual Cafe和Borlands JBuilder)在速度和资源需求方面遇到了困难。它们是用Java写的,这在当时意味着对资源的巨大需求。","attrs":{}}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"2001年:模型驱动架构","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"为了减少部门和开发之间的距离,对象管理组织(OMG,Object Management Group)在2001年推出了模型驱动架构(MDA)。作为一种软件设计方法,它提供了一组指导方针,用于将规范构建和表示为模型。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"模型支持域的整体视图,综合考虑技术和业务需求,随后转换为可执行代码。在开发和运行时使用生成器和解释器来生成或解释模型中的代码。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"随着MDA和微软软件工厂的出现,模型驱动软件开发(MDSD,Model-Driven Software Development)吸引了很多使用UML(统一建模语言,Unified Modeling Language)和BPMN(业务流程建模符号,Business Process Modeling Notation)等工具的程序员的兴趣。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"2007年:移动平台","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"随着苹果在2007年发布iPhone iOS进入移动设备市场,以及一年后谷歌的Android问世,各种移动平台应运而生。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"开发者积极使用Android Studio和Xcode等可视化编辑器在本地开发Android和iOS应用。这是桌面应用程序在移动设备上的复兴。然而,响应式网页设计以及增强型Web应用(PWA,Progressive Web APPs)等技术已经威胁到了移动应用,因为它们能够为小型设备提供具有良好用户体验(UX)的网页应用,并且不需要依赖特定的移动开发平台。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"2014年:低代码与低代码开发平台","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2014年,弗雷斯特集团(Forrester)发表了一篇文章,此后“低代码”(low-code)一词成为显学。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"我们已经看到了低代码开发平台(LCDP,Low-Code Development Platform)的出现——它的起源可以追溯到2011年——其目标是将尽可能多的概念整合到一个平台上,从而使编写代码变得不必要或至少显著减少。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"低代码平台包含RAD和MDSD过程,并将ALM(应用程序生命周期管理,Application Life Cycle Management)以及持续集成(CI,Continuous Integration)或持续部署(CD,Continuous Deployment)集成到开发、测试和生产环境中。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"为了支持整个环境的“拖放”创建,必须有PaaS(平台即服务,Platform as a Service)的支持。通常使用公有云服务提供的PaaS,但也可以使用企业内部服务(如基于OpenShift的容器平台)。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"aPaaS(应用平台即服务,Application Platform as a Service)提供了应用程序整个生命周期所需的一切:从一开始的规划阶段一直到开发、验收和运维。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"2020年:数字化转型的迫切需要","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"2020年,新冠疫情的大爆发暴露了许多企业在数字化方面已经落后了。为了保持他们的业务运作并满足他们的员工和客户的需求,他们被迫升级他们的应用程序,并构建新的应用程序来填补现有的流程空白。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"因此,低代码的普及程度得到了提升。这一势头将持续到2021年。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"低代码从历史中学到了什么?","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"像几十年前流行的4GL这样的技术,曾承诺能迅速满足客户的需求,但由于一些限制因素,最终失败了,而且它们的流行程度自推出以来就不断的在减弱。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"进入21世纪,许多RAD开发环境已经销声匿迹了。随着为web编写应用程序成为趋势,Swing和SWT等“经典”UI工具包变得越来越没有意义。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"UI设计越来越多地使用HTML、CSS和JavaScript来完成,这为网页设计师创造了越来越多的工作机会。不同的网页浏览器、操作系统(如Linux、macOS)以及从PC到智能手机再到可穿戴设备的都被当作目标系统。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"我们注意当前的低代码服务提供商大多数都学习过历史。他们知道困扰4GL和RAD的问题,并试图在他们的系统中修复这些问题。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"随着企业转向人工智能、机器人、机器学习和物联网等新技术,低代码解决方案也在不断发展,以提供这些能力。","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}},{"type":"strong","attrs":{}}],"text":"结语:","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"合理并且有效地运用低代码平台,不仅可以让我们工作高效地运行,还能最大程度保证团队目标的达成。我推荐使用","attrs":{}},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://www.informat.cn/?tag=fromINFOQDDM1125001","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"织信","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"color","attrs":{"color":"#121212","name":"user"}}],"text":"Informat,它内置100多个应用模板并覆盖:OA、ERP、CRM、生产设备、绩效、企业服务、个人及组织等多个应用场景。点击一键安装,即可免费试用。现注册可享终身免费使用权益。同时还能体验在线搭建功能,是帮助企业开启数字化转型的重要引擎!","attrs":{}}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/e3/e3416164b5a84b8ae4b32808f4056e95.jpeg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}}]}

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