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如何通过Essence改善Scrum

2021-10-22 10:43:19 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"背景"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"最近,我有幸与Jeff Sutherland博士一起合作创建了一系列的Essence实践,以帮助团队掌握Scrum和Scrum@Scale。其结果是一系列实践——Scrum Foundations、Scrum Essentials、Scrum Accelerator、Scrum Essentials的Scrum以及Executive Scrum的Scrum——可以通过物理和电子形式免费获取它们。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"任何Essence的实践都有一个关键要素,即能捕捉实践本质的实践卡片:如要达到的目标、要做的事情、要生成的事件以及行为模式。图1和图2展示了从三个核心Scrum实践中选择的卡片。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1image-1-1634112578060.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图1:从Scrum Essentials实践中选择的卡片"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1image-2-1634112578060.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图2:从Scrum Foundation和Scrum Accelerator实践中选择的卡片"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"考虑到Scrum指南(Scrum Guide)是一份有效、简洁且可免费获取的Scrum描述,思考一下为什么Jeff会花费这么多的宝贵时间在这个项目上是很有趣的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"正如Jeff最近在LinkedIn上讨论Scrum Masters的需求时所评论的那样,“58%的敏捷团队(保守地说)都有延迟,超出预算,并且客户也不满意。我们有数千家公司的数据可以证明这一点。”由于Scrum是目前最受欢迎的团队级敏捷实践,所以我们可以想当然地认为这些团队中有许多都在应用Scrum。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"为什么会这样呢?他们失败是因为Scrum存在根本性的缺陷,还是因为他们没有正确地应用它?他们只是在错误的环境中使用Scrum吗?他们使用替代性的工作管理实践会更好吗?或者他们只是在Scrum方面做得不好?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"作为一名从业30多年的教练,我已经看到1000多个团队应用了100多个实践,可以公平地说,每当某个实践变得流行时,糟糕的应用会多于好的应用。今天的敏捷实践也是如此,就像我开始指导面向对象设计时一样。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"因此,这并不是Scrum独有的问题——它同样适用于看板(Kanban)、用例(Use Cases)、用户故事(User Stories)、SAFe、LeSS、Spotify、XP或任何其他已经“跨越鸿沟”并超越了创新者以及热情的早期采用者所采用的产品。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"正如Scrum指南曾经说过的那样,“Scrum是轻量级的,易于理解的,但难以掌握”,这对许多人来说,这意味着两天的学习和一生的掌握。但是对于那些在Scrum上做得很差的团队来说,更确切的说法应该是2天学习,2个月搞砸,2年放弃。可悲的是,他们接着又会转向另一种他们同样也无法掌握的实践。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"团队在Scrum上的失败并不是因为培训(通常是高质量的)或教练(尽管教练的质量参差不齐),而是因为掌握Scrum和其他敏捷实践是很困难的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这就是Essence的用武之地——它的主要目标是让实践更容易掌握——这也是为什么Jeff如此支持本质化Scrum工作的原因所在。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Essence——将实践带入生活"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Essence是OMG的一个标准,旨在使实践更易于共享和应用。它旨在将实践、团队和组织从他们自己创造的方法监狱中解放出来,并允许团队完全拥有自己的工作方式。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"它同时提供了以下两个方面:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一种能够描述可执行、可组合实践的语言——用于捕捉实践本质的文本和图形符号,以及"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一个软件工程内核——一个领域地图,以可操作的方式定义软件工程的关键概念,并支持将实践组合成更全面的工作方式。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在Essence中,实践使用语言(用于表示)和内核(用于上下文)以可操作的轻量级形式进行描述。结果是一组卡片、检查表,以及必要时的附加指南。后者只在实践的源材料已绝版或实践用户通常无法访问的情况下才会需要。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"将一个现有的实践在Essence上表示的过程叫做本质化(Essentialization)。Essence Scrum实践的演变提供了一个很好的例子,说明了这需要什么,以及它是如何增加价值的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我们从Scrum指南开始——这是一个很好的起点,因为它真正关注的是Scrum的基本规则。通常,在任何本质化的过程中,最具挑战性的部分都是就实践的哪些部分才是真正重要的达成一致。Jeff和Ken通过专注于剥离所有非必要的内容,并使Scrum指南在每个版本中都变得更小、更集中来帮助我们。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"然后,我们将Scrum的基本元素映射到语言和内核中,然后从本质的角度填补能使新兴实践可执行所需的任何空白。在Scrum Essentials的情况下,它首先导入了21张卡片,然后进行了一些重构,将更多的焦点放在了作为Scrum基础的Scrum Values本身上。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"从方法论者的角度来看,本质化的过程是令人着迷的。 除了确定实践的哪些要素是真正必要的外,它还需要对实践要素采用标准分类法,确定可推进的要素,将结果与输出分开,并填补任何空白。 它不需要对原始材料进行任何的重写或更改实践本身。 Scrum Essentials实践准确地反映并补充了Scrum指南,而不是取代它。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一旦建立了Essentials,也就可以创建热门的扩展了。这是Scrum Accelerator实践的一个例子,它使用了一组被证明可以产生超高效的Scrum团队的模式扩展了Scrum Essentials,但1)对于Scrum的成功应用这并不是必不可少的,2)它并不是可以应用的唯一选择,以及3)通常只有在基本要素都到位后它才适用。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Essence的伟大之处在于,一旦实践被“本质化”,就可以使用它而无需学习语言的内部运作。 正如我们Essence研讨会的一个参与者Mahesh Jade所说的那样——卡片和游戏是“......真正抓住每件事情深度的东西,而参与者不必了解过多的Essence理论。 重点是它的应用——在小组中,我们将它与驾驶汽车联系起来,我们驾驶汽车,但并不需要真正了解汽车是如何制造的。”"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"通过Essence改善Scrum"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"那么,Essence是如何帮助我们掌握实践的呢?更重要的是,Scrum实践(Scrum Foundation、Scrum Essentials和Scrum Accelerator)以及潜在的Essence Kernel是如何帮助我们掌握Scrum的呢?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"首先是Jeff Sutherland的一则轶事——最近,“美国(USA)最大的一家银行的副总裁说:“我有300名产品负责人,但只有3个有交付,其他297个都没有交付。”。然后,他说,“我检查了这三个人交付的地方,他们在哪些地方采用了正确的工作方式。他们去了你的课堂。所以,你需要告诉我你们在做什么和这有什么不同。”我说,“我们所做的不同之处在于,利用Ivar的Essence工作,可以真正向人们阐明什么是有效的,什么是无效的,以及你下一步需要做什么来进行改进。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"通过在许多Scrum Master课程中使用Essence,我们(Jeff、我和其他人)还观察到,在最初的Scrum Essentials的21个组件中,平均每个团队对其中1\/3的组件实施得很好,1\/3的组件实施得很差,还有1\/3的组件根本没有实施。有了这样的实施水平和质量,我们并不总是能够看到Scrum提供的全部潜力,这也就不足为奇了。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"通过Essence来改进Scrum的核心是使用Scrum Foundation、Scrum Essentials和Scrum Accelerator实践来玩游戏、促进事件并推动团队改进。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"评估Scrum及其价值"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"最好的入门方法是使用卡片(直接或作为电子白板上的令牌)来进行自我评估 1)Scrum元素的价值和有用性,以及2)团队在支撑和践行Scrum的价值时做得如何。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这些卡片非常有助于促进这种自我反省——它们亲自为团队成员提供了一个可触摸的Scrum版本,同时以电子的方式将每个元素总结为团队成员的备忘录和词汇表。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"图3和图4展示了团队在评估他们实施Scrum及践行Scrum价值的情况。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1Image-3-1634112900241.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图3:使用Miro中的Scrum Essential Cards评估团队的Scrum"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1Image-4-1634112900241.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图4:团队评估他们是如何实践Scrum价值的(其中一张价值卡的特写)。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在工具包中添加游戏"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"除了上面展示的两款游戏外,还有许多游戏可以让培训活动更加精彩,帮助团队定制他们的Scrum实施,并在回顾期间产生新的见解。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这些包括:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"挑选一张卡片"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"实践映射"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"构建你自己的Scrum"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"建立你自己的日历"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"建立你自己的看板"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"工件的角色\/事件的焦点"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"组建团队\/角色澄清"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"合作桥梁\/客户-供应商"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"什么规模?"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"缺少什么?"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"探索你的敏捷泡沫"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"还有很多"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Essence的实践者们总是会想出新的游戏和游戏机制。图5展示了一位“游戏大师”是如何在电子表格中执行某些游戏的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1image008-1633947669170.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图5:Excel中的Essence游戏"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"以这种方式玩游戏是非常强大的,即使是像“构建你自己的Scrum”(Build Your Own Scrum)这样简单的游戏,人们的反应也可能是革命性的:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一名使用Scrum卡片的参与者表示,他在使用Essence卡片的一个小时内,对Scrum的了解比他之前在Scrum团队六年里学到的还要多。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"——Jeff Sutherland博士"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"更多关于使用Essence游戏改进团队Scrum的信息,请参阅ACM Queue的文章"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/queue.acm.org\/detail.cfm?id=3418775","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《Scrum Essentials Cards: Scrum团队使用Essence进行改进的经验》"}]},{"type":"text","text":"。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"使用Scrum Accelerator和其他Essence实践来超越Scrum Essentials"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Scrum指南为所有Scrum的实施提供了基础——它涵盖了游戏规则。在过去的25年或更长的时间里,Scrum已经在这个领域得到了实践,我们已经看到了许多实践的出现,团队可以使用这些实践来提高他们的敏捷性和性能。这包括诸如“基于点的评估”、“用户故事”和许多其他被普遍接受的Scrum实践。现在,虽然这些实践被广泛接受,但它们并不是必不可少的——所有这些实践都有可靠的替代方案(例如,一些团队使用用例而不是用户故事),其中许多是依赖于上下文的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Essence的目标是捕获这些额外的Essence实践,这样团队在准备好进行尝试时,可以将这些实践组合到Scrum框架中。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"作为与Jeff一起进行的本质化工作的一部分,我们开发了一个Scrum Accelerator实践,它捕捉他最喜欢的模式以生成“高效”的Scrum团队。同样,这是免费的,它也是许多游戏的基础。图6展示了团队评估模式的适用性以及决定何时何地使用它们的结果。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1Image-6-1634113541831.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图6:团队评估Scrum Accelerator模式的相关性,以及何时使用它们(通过两张模式卡的特写)"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":3},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"使用Essence Kernel来理解你的上下文"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"还有一些方法可以直接使用Essence来帮助你的团队进行改进。Essence Kernel支持许多游戏,这些游戏可以帮助团队了解他们所处的位置,并能分析他们工作方式中的任何差距。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这些包括:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"追逐状态"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"生命周期布局\/检查点构造"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"SWOT工作模式"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"实践作文"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"团队能力分析"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"还有很多其他的。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这个话题在2013年发表的"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/queue.acm.org\/detail.cfm?id=2541674","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《敏捷和SEMAT:完美的合作伙伴》"}]},{"type":"text","text":"论文中得到了更充分的探讨。图7展示了一个使用Kernel的团队,他们通过玩追逐状态(Chase the State)来了解他们所处的位置,并通过生命周期布局(Lifecycle Layout)来查看他们应该在什么位置。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/imgopt.infoq.com\/fit-in\/1200x2400\/filters:quality(80)\/filters:no_upscale()\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/en\/resources\/1Image-7-1634113295652.jpg","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"图7:团队使用Essence Kernel玩“追逐状态”和“生命周期布局”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"想要获取这些卡片并获得更多关于如何玩这些游戏的信息,请访问"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.ivarjacobson.com\/alphastatecards","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.ivarjacobson.com\/alphastatecards"}]},{"type":"text","text":"。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"总结与展望"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"想象一下,在一个所有实践都被本质化的世界里,我们在这里讨论的一切都可以提升到一个新的层次,在这个层次上,我们可以混合、匹配甚至组合来自不同实践的“卡片”。上面提到的所有Scrum游戏都可以通过任何实践来玩,甚至还有一些游戏可以帮助你理解实践是如何结合在一起并相互补充的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这里提到的所有Scrum实践都可以"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"http:\/\/www.ivarjacobson.com\/cards","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"以pdf格式免费获取"}]},{"type":"text","text":",也可以通过"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/pex.ivarjacobson.com\/sites\/default\/files\/practice\/scrum_at_scale_2020_11.html","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"电子方式浏览"}]},{"type":"text","text":"(或者你可以按照图2中的二维码进行操作)。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"要了解更多有关Essence游戏的信息,并继续你的Essence之旅,请访"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"http:\/\/essence.ivarjacobson.com\/","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"essence.ivarjacobson.com"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"作者介绍:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"Ian Spence"},{"type":"text","text":"是雅各布森国际公司(Ivar Jacobson International)的首席科学家,他在那里指导团队从事一些全球范围内规模最大、技术最具挑战性的项目,例如平方公里阵列射电望远镜(Square Kilometre Array,SKA)项目,建造世界上最大的射电望远镜以探索宇宙——并与业界思想领袖如Dean Leffingwell、Jeff Sutherland博士、Ivar Jacobson博士合作,以提升软件开发的艺术。他领导创建了OMG的Essence Kernel和许多最流行的Essence Practices。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"原文链接:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.infoq.com\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.infoq.com\/articles\/better-scrum-essence\/"}]}]}]}

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