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1ms delay, 10Gbps rate... Interpretation of 5g communication technology

2021-09-15 03:43:54 Huawei cloud developer community

Abstract :5G What are the key technologies of communication ?5G What new technologies and changes have the mobile Internet scene and the Internet of things scene brought ?

This article is shared from Huawei cloud community 《5G Interpretation of key communication technologies 》, author :Super. Wen .

5G As the latest generation of cellular communication technology , Has been a lot of attention , In addition to their... Now on the market 5G Outside the mobile terminal , Application scenarios are also expanded from mobile Internet business to Internet of things . that 5G What are the key technologies of communication ?5G What new technologies and changes have the mobile Internet scene and the Internet of things scene brought ?

5G Standard evolution and industrial development

Last decade , Operators and suppliers have released digital and intelligent transformation strategies , then 5G Rapid deployment of , Society is fully connected 、 Total perception 、 A fully intelligent society has taken a more solid step . Stand today and look forward to the future ,2025 The year will be a very important time point , according to Vision25 The report , To 2025 year :

  • Smart home field : The global 14% Our family will have home intelligent robots ;
  • AR/VR Visual field : Global VR/AR The number of users will reach 37 Billion , use VR/AR Technology companies will grow to 10%;
  • Intelligent Manufacturing : Every 10000 manufacturing employees will work with 103 Robots work together ;
  • AI field :97% The big business will adopt AI, Man machine collaboration is everywhere , Create more value .

Behind these changes , yes 5G Rapid deployment of ,2025 year , The world will deploy 650 Wanji station , In the service of 28 Billion users . If the goals to be achieved in these different industries are summarized in three words , In fact, it is the perception of all things 、 The interconnection of all things and the intelligence of all things .

A very important factor for society to achieve these goals will be 5G Rapid deployment of , To speed up the 5G The deployment of can help quickly achieve these industry goals .
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chart - Standard evolution

5G The development of standards can be traced back to 17 Year of R15, About 5G The main criteria are R15 To formulate the , Including wireless technology framework , Physical layer coding , Multi antenna system and network uplink and downlink architecture . here we are R16 It's equivalent to 5G Our standards have been improved and strengthened again , So R16 yes 5G The full version of .

however 5G The standard is from Release15 At the beginning , Here you can put 5G The evolution of technology is divided into two parts , The first part is made up of LTE Evolved , From the beginning LTE-Advanced Until then LTE-AdvancedPro That's what the industry says 4.5G, After that 5G. The other part contains 5G New technology . So in summary ,5G The standard is from R15 At the beginning , also 5G The new technical standard consists of two parts , Yes LTE The part of evolution includes LTEAdvancedpro Evolution and EPC evolution . Another part 5G The new technology includes 5G New air port and 5G New generation core network .

5G Another advantage of is that it unifies global standards , stay 3G Time , There are three common standards in China . The standards of the three major domestic operators are different , China Telecom uses CDMA2000, China Unicom is WCDMA And China Mobile is TD-SCDMA. What's the problem ? That is, when users buy mobile phones, they should pay attention to their own SIM Which company does the card belong to , Because the networks between different operators are incompatible .

So this is a troublesome thing for users . Of course , When buying a mobile phone, users will see all Netcom and non all Netcom versions , Not all Netcom's mobile phones belong to a customized machine of an operator , This kind of mobile phone will be cheaper than non custom phones , But it does not support other operator networks .

here we are 4G The times are the same , It also has two standards , One is TD-LTE The other is FDD-LTE. In order to solve such a multi standard chaos ,5G It stipulates , After that, there is only one standard in the world , In this case , Users all over the world will be more convenient in mobile communication .
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chart - National strategy

At the national level ,5G How important is technology ? As you can see from the diagram , In fact, many countries have realized 5G Can bring benefits to the country . Many countries put 5G and AI As the core strategy of national digital development .

According to the statistics , stimulate GDP The most effective way to grow is to increase in ICT Investment in technology , And Huawei research shows that ,20% Of ICT Investment will bring... To the country 1% Of GDP growth . In terms of investment efficiency ratio , investment ICT The efficiency and benefit of technology is very high . So many countries are aware of 5G and AI And take it as an important strategy for national development . From this we can see that , Building 5G It's not just the work of operators , It is also a necessary work for national construction .

from 5G In terms of network deployment , stay 2018 In the first half of , There are only 5 Zhang 5G Network of , But here we are 2018 In the second half of the year 30 Zhang . therefore 5G The speed of network deployment is very fast . To 2019 By the end of year , There are already 13 Ten thousand seats 5G The base station , Many cities, such as North 、 On 、 Guang et al. Have realized 5G A continuous covering of . So the country and even the world , about 5G We attach great importance to the development of .

In the presence of 5G After the network , There must be matching products for 5G On the Internet . stay 18 year 2 Month of the month , Huawei released its first product to the world 5G Commercial chip Baron 5G01 And a commercial terminal based on the chip 5GCPE. The measured downlink rate of this terminal can reach 2Gbps. When we get there , Huawei has also released a device equipped with this chip 5G Folding screen mobile phone MateX. After that , Huawei will 5G The module is integrated into the system on chip , Also launched Kirin 980、 kirin 990 Wait for the chip , There are also the latest 5G mobile phone HuaweiMate40 etc.

5G Introduction to key technologies

5G The key performance indicators of are mentioned above 5G The capabilities required for the three scenarios :1 Millisecond delay ,10Gbps Rate , A million connections per square kilometer , There is also the sliced network architecture , The details of network slicing will be introduced later in this section .

New architecture

5G The key technologies of can be divided into three key innovations , They are the new architecture , New gap , Full spectrum . Next, this paper will analyze the above three technological innovations one by one . First of all 5G The new architecture of ,5G This network , It's a network , Carrying thousands of industries . stay 5G In the Internet , The actual application scenario is complex and changeable , Some application scenarios have various requirements for the network , This requires the operator to control the delay 、 Bandwidth and other requirements are combined to form multiple slices with different capabilities . So if you want to slice , This requires the network to be a flexible network .

1. Network slice

First, in the 5G The core network uses NFV(NetworkFunctionVirtualization) Technology ,NFV Virtualization of network functions , By using x86 And virtualization technology , To carry many functions of software processing . So as to reduce the network expensive equipment cost . Through hardware and software decoupling and function abstraction , Make the network device function no longer depend on dedicated hardware , Resources can be shared flexibly , Realize the rapid development and deployment of new business , And automatically deploy based on actual business requirements 、 Stretch and stretch 、 Fault isolation and self-healing .

Generally speaking, the functions of network devices are no longer limited by hardware , Like before , Memory is memory ,CPU yes CPU, After buying these hardware, the user's use limit is only so much , But usually buy a lot of resources to ensure the adequacy of resources . So this structure , It's easy to waste resources , Because you don't need so many resources in the process of ordinary use . The virtualized architecture gets rid of these hardware constraints , It can divide the same hardware into many different users , It is an elastic architecture , Take up as much as you use , Other parts can be used by others .

Such a network , Different services can be handled according to the requirements of fragmentation .SDN(SoftwareDefinedNetwork) Is the same , It refers to the use of software to define the network , In order to achieve a more intelligent 、 Elastic network . Its core technology OpenFlow By separating the control surface and data surface of network equipment , Thus, the flexible control of network traffic is realized , Make the network more intelligent as a pipeline , It provides a good platform for innovation of core network and application .

From this we can see that , Network slicing technology in 5G Use in the network . It uses slicing technology to virtualize multiple end-to-end networks on the basis of a common hardware , Each network has different network functions , Adapt to different types of service needs .

2. NSA&SA Networking mode

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chart - Networking mode

5G The networking mode can be divided into non independent networking NSA And independent networking SA Two ways . As you can see from the diagram ,NSA The architecture of is mainly composed of 4G Core network EPC,4G The base station eNodeB,5G The base station gNodeB These parts make up . In this framework ,4G and 5G All base stations are made up of 4G Core network to control . however SA The networking mode is different , It is mainly made up of 4G The base station eNodeB、5G The base station gNodeB、4G Core network EPC and 5G Core network NGC These four parts make up .

For readers, the difference between these two networking methods may not be particularly easy to understand , But a simple example can be used to illustrate to readers . Let's say you're a restaurant owner , You now have a restaurant facade called facade 4, You hired a chef called chef 4. As business gets better , The hotel is overcrowded , You're going to expand your business , But because expansion requires a lot of money , And you can't invest blindly . So you chose two options , programme A Is to buy another store called facade 5 And a chef called chef 5, This is the simplest solution , The most direct , But it also costs the most . There's another option , programme B Is to buy another store called the facade 5, But stop hiring a cook , By the chef 4 To take care of two stores . This way, , Although it saves money , But it's troublesome , And maybe the chef 4 Will be too busy .

In the above two schemes , programme A And independent networking SA It's the same , The two facades are equivalent to 4G and 5G Two base stations , The chef inside is equivalent to the core network . So the plan B Well , And independent networking NSA equally . The two networking methods are fundamentally different , It's actually the same as the example of a hotel , In the final analysis, it's the money .

As long as there is enough money , Want to have pure 、 The perfect 5G The Internet , It is very simple , As long as all devices are created at the same time , Independent networking is adopted , and 4G Completely separated . But not all operators are local tyrants , In order to facilitate users to gradually enjoy 5G,3GPP This method of non independent networking is proposed , So it provides operators with two different levels of packages .

3. 5G Core network NGC

5G The core network has four technical features :

First , Control load separation , What's the advantage of this ? Here you need to know the difference between the control surface and the user surface , The control plane is responsible for transmitting control signaling , What the user plane transmits is the data actually used by the user . When the control surface and the user surface are separated , In this way, when operators are conducting software management 、 When you upgrade , Deal with whichever side has a problem , It's easy , A lot of convenience .

the second , Mobile edge computing , Mobile edge computing is a system running at the edge of mobile network , ECS running specific tasks . Its main function is to hand over part of the business of the core network to the cloud server room located at the edge of the mobile network . Do this , It can effectively reduce the time of back and forth network transmission , In this way, the delay can be effectively reduced and the bandwidth can be saved .

Third , Network function reconstruction , This is very easy to understand , Because this network is placed in the cloud for computing , Moreover, the architecture of the network and the functions of each part have been re planned , So its feature is function refactoring .

The fourth one , Network slice , This is also mentioned above , Slicing network is an end-to-end network , It's a very resilient network . It will be divided end-to-end according to specific requirements .

New gap

This part of the new air interface involves the knowledge of the physical layer , There will not be too much explanation in this course , So if readers want to know more about this part , You can continue to learn 5G Course in the field of . In the course of Internet of things , Readers only need to understand 5G The new air interface technology used is full duplex 、MassiveMIMO、Polar code 、F-OFDM and SCMA That's all right. . Among them in MassiveMIMO Multiple antennas will be used as the receiver and transmitter , And outside the time domain and frequency domain , Reuse technology is also used in space , To improve throughput .

Full spectrum

As mentioned above ,3G The frequency band is 1800M,4G yes 2600M.5G Jump straight to C Frequency band, that is 3.4-3.6GHz.4G Although the frequency band used is not low ,2600M Namely 2.6G. however , It can still reach a coverage of about two kilometers through the signal amplification of the base station . however 5G No way. , except C Frequency band , Up the frequency band, there are millimeter waves , That is to say 6GHz This part of the above , So 5G The biggest question is what ? One is that it consumes a lot of energy , The other is that its coverage and penetration are too weak .

So for 5G Speaking of ,C This part of the frequency band is relative to millimeter wave , Its frequency is still relatively low , So it will be used for the full coverage of the base station , That is, what operators are building 5G The frequency band used outside the base station is in this part . Then the rest of the frequency band will be used for capacity and self retransmission . About capacity , For example, like a transportation hub 、 The indoor area of the stadium is relatively large 、 Places with high population density and few barriers , Sometimes when there are many people , Ordinary C The coverage area of the base station in the frequency band is limited , The number of users that each base station can carry is also limited , Therefore, it is easy to reduce the rate , This indicates that there are too many users in the base station , We can only sacrifice the rate to ensure that every user can access the network . You need to use... At this time 6GHz Expand the capacity of small base stations in the above frequency bands , Because although the high-frequency signal has poor penetration , But the relative reflectance is better , So it is more suitable for these scenarios .

About autobiography , In today's home network , For example, optical fiber into the home , It uses a wired way to connect the optical fiber cable to the cell . In the following , Operators will use wireless means , For example, as mentioned above CPE, For wireless return . On the one hand, it can be used as a base station to provide services for terminals , On the other hand , It can replace optical fiber to achieve wireless self return , That's what we'll talk about in the next section FWA,fixedwirelessaccess. So 5G The deployment mode of is high-frequency and low-frequency hybrid networking , It aggregates all frequency bands and spectrum , And different frequency bands are used in different directions , To make 5G For better results .

More learning , Please pay attention to IoT Internet of things community

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