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比贝佐斯早9天!71岁亿万富翁历经14年,终于登上太空圆梦

2021-07-12 20:08:00 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"7月11日,71岁的理查德·布兰森(Richard Branson)"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.virgingalactic.com\/","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"成功搭乘"}]},{"type":"text","text":"自家维珍银河 (Virgin Galactic) 太空船2号(SpaceShipTwo),从新墨西哥州的Spaceport America太空港出发,飞往太空。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"自此,除了亿万富翁,布兰森身上还新增了“商业航天第一人”、“私人航天第一人”等标签,布兰森希望能借此让新生的太空旅游产业真正起步,同时“跑赢”同行亚马逊创始人杰夫·贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)。就在9天后的7月20日,贝索斯将作为"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.blueorigin.com\/","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"蓝色起源"}]},{"type":"text","text":"(Blue Origin)搭载的首批人员飞往太空,进行一次类似的太空之旅。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"虽然这只是一次试飞,接下来维珍银河还会再进行两次试飞,真正的商业飞行服务要到明年才开始提供,但此次成功升空意义重大,布兰森成为首位乘搭私人太空船进入太空领域的平民,同时也是太空旅行商业化的重要里程碑。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"太空船2号的飞行任务"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这是维珍银河的第4次载人太空试飞,也是首次满员太空试飞,共搭载6人,包括该公司4名任务专家和2名飞行员。除布兰森外,另外3名任务专家为维珍银河公司副总裁西丽莎·班德拉、首席宇航员教练贝丝·摩西和首席运营工程师科林·贝内特。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"据维珍银河介绍,此次试飞主要目的是评测客舱和用户体验,包括评估客舱环境、座椅舒适度、人体失重感受、飞船内能看到的地球景观等,展示飞船上开展科学研究的条件,验证太空旅行的培训方案等。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"因此包括布兰森在内的4名任务专家各有任务。班德拉负责测试在Unity飞船不同飞行阶段(包括失重阶段)开展实验的体验。而布兰森将以付费乘客的角度观察这次飞行,为那些想要经历终生难忘体验的持票人寻找提升旅途体验的方法。摩西是维珍银河首席宇航员首席教练,她要保证这次测试飞行中每个人都是安全的。而贝内特将要检测太空船舱室性能,寻找潜在的提升可能。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"当天,太空船二号由白骑士二号(WhiteKnightTwo)飞机运载,先从传统的跑道上起飞,再被携带到高空,在大约15公里的高度,太空船被释放,随后点燃其混合火箭发动机,达到3倍多音速后熄火,飞船最终升至距地面约86公里的高空。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/b3\/8d\/b3550e5ce7c2f9bfcf5097c9fab4a88d.jpeg","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在发动机关闭后的几分钟时间里,布兰森等人便可脱离他们的座位,在失重状态下漂浮几分钟,透过机舱舷窗欣赏太空景色。随着飞船重新进入大气层,向下的重力又恢复了,飞船便滑翔回到太空港的着陆点。从起飞到降落的整个过程持续约50分钟,比预计的短40分钟左右。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/1c\/9f\/1c1ed0b59122687c88dc44e2e2ba229f.jpeg","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"事实上,布兰森最初预测商业飞行将在2007年开始,但开发进展远不如人意。此前在2014年,维珍银河的SpaceShipTwo太空船(即本次试飞的同款飞船)还经历了一次严重事故。一名宇航员不幸殒命,另一人重伤。直到2018年,维珍银河的飞船才第一次成功进入太空领域。第二次则在2020年12月,但因为电磁干扰导致计算机故障,未完成预定任务就迫降。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"太空船2号目前可以搭载8人前往太空,包括6名乘客和2名飞行员。若计划顺利,维珍银河在明年就会搭载付费乘客进入太空。据了解,维珍银河已经以20万-25万美元的价格出售了600多张“旅游门票”。其预计,将来每年可安排约400次太空航班起飞,让乘客享受太空旅行乐趣。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在试飞结束后,布兰森宣布了一项抽奖活动,与慈善筹款平台Omaze合作,在未来的维珍银河航班上为捐赠者赠送两个座位。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"富豪竞相上太空“兜风”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"维珍银河不是唯一一个正在尝试将太空旅行商业化的民间企业,美国亚马逊创办人贝佐斯创立的蓝色起源公司计划在7月20日,进行首次载人飞行任务。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"蓝色起源上周五在"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/twitter.com\/blueorigin\/status\/1413521627116032001","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"推特"}]},{"type":"text","text":"上发布了几张信息图,将自家的飞行器与维珍银河使用的飞行器进行了比较,并骄傲地表示“我们的宇航员名字旁边没有一个星号”——意指维珍银河的飞行高度并未达到距地表100公里的“卡门线”,而仅符合美国联邦航空管理局(FAA)规定的距地表80公里的“太空分界线”。在相关推特中,蓝色起源还强调了该公司的飞行器拥有“太空中最大的窗户”以及对臭氧层“最小”的影响等优势。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/cc\/yy\/cca837dac550e577ded48303d2fb86yy.jpeg","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"分析指出,维珍银河的太空飞船是一种空射飞行器,先由母机送至约1.5万米的高空,与母机分离后,由飞船上的火箭助推装置点火,推动船体继续上升,当飞行速度达到音速的3.3倍时,火箭发动机关闭,太空飞船在惯性作用下继续爬升至距离地球表面约50英里(约80公里)处,随后,该太空飞船还会飞行约4分钟,重新进入大气层,滑翔到跑道着陆。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"与维珍银河的飞行器不同,蓝色起源的New Shepard是一种传统设计的飞行器,由可重复使用的火箭发射,不需要专门的机组人员来驾驶。New Shepard目前已经完成了15次不同的测试任务,从未发生过灾难性事故。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"两者的共同点是都可以搭载四名乘客,此外都不能进行全轨道飞行,因为这需要更多的能量和更高的加速度。不过,它们都可以飞得足够高,让乘客在亚轨道空间观赏地球曲线,并体验不同寻常的太空飞行。两家公司都希望未来有大量游客预定他们的太空旅行航班。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"不过,从票价来看,目前蓝色起源对“普通人”来说门槛有点太高了。日前,蓝色起源载人飞船首飞的一张“船票”在线上已经从480万美元竞拍至2800万美元,折合成人民币约1.79亿元。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"据报道,至少有来自140多个国家的6000余人参与了此次竞拍。此次中标者将在7月20日与贝索斯一起搭乘New Shepard进行一次亚轨道飞行,乘客们将在舱内享受零重力状态下漂浮至少10分钟的体验。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"轨道飞行和亚轨道飞行"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"不管是蓝色起源还是维珍银河,其航班都是将乘客送到亚轨道太空。所谓亚轨道,是指距离地面20公里至100公里的空域,处于现有飞机的最高飞行高度和卫星的最低轨道高度之间,也称为临近空间或空天过渡区,大致包括大气平流层区域、大气中间层区域和部分电离层区域。这一区域既不属于航空范畴,也不属于航天范畴。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而亚轨道飞行与轨道飞行的最大区别在于亚轨道不能环绕地球一周。从速度上来说,也就是发射初速度达不到环绕地球所必须的第一宇宙速度,所以抛射体在到达最高点之后高度就会一直下降,并且在绕回发出点之前就会落地。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"亚轨道飞行,于乘客而言就像是坐巨大的过山车,可以在上面漂浮几分钟,并通过“太空窗户”欣赏地球的曲线和漆黑的太空。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而“钢铁侠”马斯克的SpaceX,则旨在搭载乘客进入轨道,进行更长时间的旅游,比如前往国际太空站。所以也有了马斯克对蓝色起源的调侃——“尚未将任何航天器送进地球轨道”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"参考链接:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.nytimes.com\/2021\/07\/11\/science\/richard-branson-virgin-galactic-space.html","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.nytimes.com\/2021\/07\/11\/science\/richard-branson-virgin-galactic-space.html"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"http:\/\/www.chinanews.com\/gj\/2021\/07-12\/9517591.shtml","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"http:\/\/www.chinanews.com\/gj\/2021\/07-12\/9517591.shtml"}]}]}]}

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