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灵活越障、花样空翻 ,腾讯轮腿式机器人亮相行业顶会ICRA

2021-06-03 14:33:20 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"6月3日,腾讯轮腿式机器人Ollie(奥利)在机器人行业顶会ICRA正式亮相。它像一个灵活的“轮滑小子”,能完成跳跃、360度空翻等高难度动作。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/00\/9b\/002930a23b9b462971076bbcca18a19b.gif","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"轮腿式机器人(wheel-legged robot)是近年来机器人研究的前沿领域。Ollie兼具轮式结构和腿部能力,轮式结构移动快、效率高;腿部能力让Ollie适应不平地面、完成跳跃台阶等动作,达到了行业领先水平。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这是腾讯Robotics X实验室的新型机器人。在自平衡自行车、机器狗Jamoca和Max之后,Ollie积累了实验室的移动控制技术,并在运动规划、平衡与稳定性上重点突破,成为实验室又一大创新成果。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在日前举办的ICRA 2021,腾讯AI Lab及Robotics X实验室主任张正友博士受邀作大会报告,介绍了Robotics X实验室在机器人移动研究领域的布局与进展,并分享了Ollie的技术细节。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“轮滑小子”首次亮相,跳跃、空翻样样在行"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"要让机器人应对复杂地形,跳跃能力不可或缺。Ollie最低身高只有35厘米的Ollie,可以跳上40厘米的台阶,竖直起跳高度最高可达60厘米,能轻松完成360度空翻挑战;在平地上时,Ollie更像是一个“不倒翁”,能抗住各种“突发”状况。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/26\/97\/26d98bdf5b4961eefb9cb9e22d1d0897.gif","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"它单腿采用并联机构,与身体形成五连杆结构,使整体具有结构简单、动态性能高、爆发力强的特点;“尾巴”的独特设计一方面为Ollie提供额外角动量,助其完成更高动态运动,如空翻。同时“尾巴”可充当第三条腿,增加稳定性,为搭载机械臂完成更多任务提供可能。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"应对复杂地形,完成高动态空翻动作背后,源于腾讯Robotics X实验室的最新研究进展:非线性控制技术、全身动力学控制和轨迹规划。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"非线性控制技术"},{"type":"text","text":"让机器人具备良好的平衡能力,此前实验室研发的自平衡自行车已应用同类技术,在静止及行进状态下均保持平衡不倒。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"针对轮腿式机器人的形态和特点,腾讯Robotics X实验室研发团队适应性地应用非线性控制方法,控制器不再受限于模型的可线性化区间内,使机器人Ollie在大角度倾斜时也具有良好的平衡能力和鲁棒性(Robust音译,指在异常和危险情况下系统生存的能力)。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在双轮模式下,机器人与地面只有两个接触点,对平衡能力要求更高。在变换身高过不平整地面、甚至单腿过障碍时,Ollie都能完美保持平衡。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/6a\/0f\/6a17e2f85a427a3c6b87fe50309b790f.gif","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"全身动力学控制"},{"type":"text","text":"像给Ollie装上了发达的“小脑”,其采用最优化方法求得各关节力矩来实现全身姿态调整,不仅能让它实现更有挑战的运动,并在面对突如其来的巨大冲击如在空翻落地和遇到碰撞时,Ollie能“以柔克刚”,顺利抵抗外界干扰,保持平衡。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"除了平衡能力之外,Ollie还拥有"},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"轨迹规划能力"},{"type":"text","text":"。在完成这些动作时,Ollie要动用自己的“大脑”提前“想好”运动轨迹,即如何应用自身的形态和结构特点,最大程度地发挥关节电机性能来实现目标运动。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Ollie以全身动力学模型为基础,将整个跳跃或空翻过程分解为起跳、飞行、落地三个阶段,通过优化手段得到完成整个运动的关节电机位置、速度和关节力矩的参考值序列。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Robotics X移动能力再突破 论文入选机器人顶会ICRA"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"腾讯Robotics X实验室主攻移动、灵巧操作和智能体三大机器人核心通用技术的研究与应用。其中,移动能力被认为是机器人最核心、也是最基本的能力之一。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"实验室移动技术框架包含机械设计、感知、运动规划及控制,以及融合这三者的整机系统设计与搭建等四大模块,他们分别可理解为机器人的躯干、眼睛、大脑,以及各“器官”协调的能力。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.geekbang.org\/infoq\/d0\/d0b281c61752c43000bb8b10389355b3.png","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Ollie的“轮滑”、“空翻”能力就来源于这些器官协调后的结果。在机械设计、整机系统与控制软件上集成迭代了实验室技术积累,并重点在运动规划与控制上突破创新。新增的全身动力学控制与整机参数辨识提升了机器人运动的精准度、灵活度以及柔顺性,拓展了实验室的移动技术布局。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Ollie 相关研究论文已被 ICRA 2021 收录,论文介绍了轮腿式机器人平衡控制器的设计思路与实验结果。ICRA全称国际机器人与自动化会议(IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation),是机器人领域最有影响力的国际学术会议之一。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.geekbang.org\/infoq\/e0\/e0f26f9aeefc925993f553e029aab782.png","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"目前Ollie还处于研发阶段,实验室将基于轮腿式机器人平台的机动性特点,拓展平台上感知、负载等各功能模块搭建,让机器人具备更成熟、更丰富的能力。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"比如,本次团队尝试探索了Ollie的负载能力,两轮、三轮可以随意切换,再加上一个机械臂,让它能够平稳地端起一杯咖啡,通过轮式移动递给远处的客人。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/4a\/17\/4a4184075af2370bcc9f810464689d17.gif","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"未来,腾讯 Robotics X实验室还将在机器人行业做全方位、多领域的探索,向人机共存、共创、共赢的未来不断迈进。"}]}]}

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