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大疆恐难飞:北美团队被曝裁员1/3 ,核心高管离职,内斗严重

2021-03-15 11:02:04 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"无人机巨头的困境。"}]}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大疆北美业务大裁员"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中国无人机巨头大疆在美国市场一骑绝尘,“消灭”了几乎所有竞争对手。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.geekbang.org\/infoq\/87\/8793e9fce5497ce76f786f02ae45bcbe.png","alt":null,"title":null,"style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":null,"fromPaste":true,"pastePass":true}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"加拿大蒙特利尔,在通过手机应用注册并登记用户信息之后,这架来自中国厂商大疆的无人机轻盈地飞向空中。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但根据对20多位前任及责任员工的采访,最近几个月、特别是几周以来,大疆公司的北美业务受到沉重打击,甚至被迫进行了一轮残酷的裁员。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"根据其中4位受访者的介绍,大疆的本轮裁员还遣散了多位核心管理人员(其中一部分已经加入竞争对手阵营)。面对美国政府对中国企业的打压,大疆公司在美国市场上的主导地位受到一定影响。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"据3位前任及现任员工称,大疆公司之前在美国拥有约200名员工,但去年帕洛阿尔托、伯班克及纽约办事处已经有三分之一员工遭到解雇或主动辞职。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"今年2月,大疆美国研发部门负责人离职,其位于加利福尼亚州帕洛阿尔托的美国旗舰研究中心也解雇了最后10位研发人员。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大疆公司创始者兼掌门人、亿万富翁汪滔表示,裁员无疑是个艰难的决定。但为了体现该公司“不断变化的发展需求”,必须削减帕洛阿尔托地区的员工。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"该公司表示,“我们感激员工们的卓越贡献,也将继续努力服务我们的客户及合作伙伴。”大疆方面还补充称,其北美地区的销售额仍然保持强劲增长。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“尽管有竞争对手发布误导性声明,但我们的企业客户可以证明,大疆产品能够提供强大的数据安全保障。而且面对种种不实传闻,大疆承诺将继续致力于服务北美市场。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"该公司并没有对此次前任及现任员工证实的美国裁员事件发表评论,但大疆曾在去年的采访中表示,其全球运营结构正变得“越来越难以管理”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"自2006年成立以来,大疆公司已经成为中国企业中的创新代表,也因此与华为及字节跳动一样被列入中美贸易战期间美方列出的管控公司清单当中。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"员工及竞争对手表示,从品牌影响力、技术储备、制造能力以及销售渠道等因素来看,大疆公司在总值数十亿美元的美国乃至全球民用无人机市场上仍占据着绝对优势。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但据3位前任高管及2位竞争对手的说法,由于去年12月被列入美国商务部公布的“实体清单”、再加上刚刚关闭位于加利福尼亚州的研发部门,大疆公司满足美国客户需求的能力很可能有所削弱。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"根据针对大疆公司的“高科技监管”等约束性条款,美国商务部通过清单明确禁止大疆采购或使用美国本土提供的技术或组件。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"就在同月,大疆公司美国公共安全负责人Romeo Durscher辞去职务。这位高管曾在帮助大疆拓展美国业务方面发挥核心作用,包括为美国政府部门及多家机构提供无人机技术。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Durscher为美国宇航局(NASA)前项目主管,在无人机行业颇具影响力。目前,他已经转投大疆的竞争对手、瑞士Auterion公司。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"他提到,之所以离开大疆,是因为他对此次裁员、以及大疆美国分部与中国总部之间的内部权力斗争感到厌恶和沮丧。他补充道,美国分部的重组致使应对中美紧张局势以及拿下美国政府订单变得越来越困难。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"于2014年加入大疆的Durscher提到,“成长为这样一家全面领先的市场统治者绝非易事。但目前的内部斗争消耗了人们的精力,而且情况到2020年变得更加糟糕……大疆失去了很多有才华的员工,真的很遗憾。”"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"美国的安全焦虑"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"由于并未上市,大疆公司一直没有公布自己的销售数据。但美国国防部估计,过去一年全美民用无人机市场总值约为42亿美元。咨询服务企业DroneAnalyst则表示,大疆控制了北美近90%的民用市场以及超过七成的工业市场。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大疆企业团队高管、DroneAnalyst研究负责人David Benowitz认为,美国商务部去年12月提出的美国技术及组件采购禁令,很可能会对大疆公司的移动应用、Web服务器、电池及部分影像产品造成影响。这位前工业客户合作伙伴已经于去年夏天辞去在大疆的职务。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大疆公司在去年12月表示,这项禁令不会对美国客户的采购与使用体验造成影响。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但更多打击还在后面。去年10月,美国内政部表示将仅从国防部认证的企业手中购买无人机。国防部则于去年8月向联邦政府公布了首批5家认证无人机供应商——4家美国公司,1家法国公司。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"大疆表示,“美国政府并没有针对大疆无人机发布广泛的购买禁令。”“国会去年曾经考虑采用这类全面禁令,但目前美国众多企业及政府机构对无人机有着硬性需求,因此这种禁令缺乏广泛可行性。”“我们才刚刚起步”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Benowitz认为,中美之间持续存在的紧张局势以及华盛顿政府的出手干预,很可能给大疆竞争对手带来利好,同时压低大疆在北美地区的市场份额。他补充道,虽然联邦政府业务只在大疆创新业务中的很小一部分,但禁令很可能产生“寒蝉效应”,导致其他买家担心美国未来对大疆实施更严格的管控措施。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“就目前来看,大疆的主导优势带来了大量难以消化的市场机会。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但他也承认,目前市面上的所有替代性产品都还远远不能与大疆相抗衡。尽管去年美国政府对大疆的打压给其他厂商带来了发展空间,目前也出现了法国Parrot以及总部位于加利福尼亚的Skydio等相对出色的竞争对手,但双方的实力还未处于同一量级。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Parrot公司美国分部CEO Chris Roberts在2020年提到,对他们来说这无疑是重要的一年。该公司被国防部指定为认证无人机供应商,也从应急服务与安全机构手中拿下不少订单。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Skydio公司曾于上周公布了1.7亿美元的D轮融资,并表示其估值已经超过10亿美元。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Skydio公司CEO Adam Bry在采访中表示,“大疆的硬件水平确实很高,而我们还处于早期发展阶段。与最终发展目标相比,我们目前的产品还相当原始。”"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"PHANTOM系列无人机"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2014年Durscher刚刚加入时,大疆的Phantom系列产品正努力把无人机从小众娱乐工具转化为主流工具。他提到,当时可以说是将无人机设备引入消防及救援部门的黄金时间窗口。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但去年各家竞争对手的快速发展已经吸引到美国部分公共安全机构的注意,他们显然倾向于采购指定厂商的产品以回避数据安全问题。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"他还提到,最早采购的那批无人机设备也差不多临近使用年限,相关政府机构及企业很可能会把握机会、转而选择其他品牌。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Benowitz提到,一批无人机基本上使用三到四年就需要整体更换。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Durscher及其他几位员工,甚至把大疆内部各项目组间的斗争形容为“权力的游戏”。深圳总部的领导层简直如走马灯般地更换,在6年的任职期间,他先后向12位高管汇报过工作。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Durscher在离开大疆之前,已经有多位北美核心高管成员选择退出,其中包括业务发展总监Cynthia Huang。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"目前与Durscher共同在Auterion供职的Huang提到,她发现大疆已经越来越跟不上企业市场的需求增长。她还提到,过去一年的裁员事件成为离职的最终导火线。根据去年8月的报道,继裁撤全球销售与市场营销团队之后,大疆又遣散了帕洛阿尔托、伯班克及纽约的团队成员。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2018年加入大疆、受命建立北美企业业务的Huang慨叹道,“这些莫名其妙的裁员让我们失去了很多人才。这种持续不断的损失真的让人难以接受。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"},{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":10}}],"text":"原文链接:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/idUSL1N2L6019","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/idUSL1N2L6019"}],"marks":[{"type":"italic"},{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":10}}]}]}]}

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