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在.NET Core 中使用Quartz.NET

2021-01-24 02:12:00 itread01

Quartz.NET是功能齊全的開源作業排程系統,可用於最小的應用程式到大型企業系統。Quartz.NET具有三個主要概念:- job:執行的後臺任務- trigger:控制後臺任務執行的觸發器。- scheduler:協調job和trigger![](https://blog-1259586045.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/clipboard_20210123_095408.png)ASP.NET Core通過託管服務對執行“後臺任務”具有良好的支援,託管服務在ASP.NET Core應用程式啟動時啟動,並在應用程式生存期內在後臺執行,Quartz.NET版本3.2.0通過Quartz.Extensions.Hosting包引入了對該模式的直接支援,Quartz.Extensions.Hosting可以與ASP.NET Core應用程式一起使用,也可以與基於“通用主機”的工作程式服務一起使用。雖然.NET Core可以建立“定時”後臺服務(例如,每10分鐘執行一次任務),但Quartz.NET提供了更為強大的解決方案, 通過使用Cron表示式,您可以確保任務在特定時間(例如,凌晨2:30)執行,或僅在特定的幾天執行,或這些時間的任意組合。Quartz.NET還允許您以叢集方式執行應用程式的多個例項,以便在任何時候都只能執行一個例項。## 安裝Quartz.NETQuartz.NET是一個.NET Standard 2.0 NuGet軟體包,所以大部分專案都是支援的,你可以執行安裝命令,`dotnet add package Quartz.Extensions.Hosting`,或者在NNuget視覺化安裝,如果檢視該專案的.csproj,應該是下邊這樣:```csharp net5.0 dotnet-QuartzWorkerService-9D4BFFBE-BE06-4490-AE8B-8AF1466778FD ```安裝完成以後,這個包會自動安裝 Quartz.NET包,接下來,我們需要在我們的應用程式中註冊Quartz服務和Quartz 。## 新增Quartz.NET hosted service修改Program.cs,註冊服務```csharppublic class Program{ public static void Main(string[] args) { CreateHostBuilder(args).Build().Run(); } public static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) => Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args) .ConfigureServices((hostContext, services) => { // Add the required Quartz.NET services services.AddQuartz(q => { // Use a Scoped container to create jobs. I'll touch on this later q.UseMicrosoftDependencyInjectionScopedJobFactory(); }); // Add the Quartz.NET hosted service services.AddQuartzHostedService( q => q.WaitForJobsToComplete = true); // other config });}```UseMicrosoftDependencyInjectionScopedJobFactory(),這個地方告訴Quartz.NET註冊一個IJobFactory,然後從DI容器中獲取Job,這樣也可以使用 Scoped 型別的服務。WaitForJobsToComplete():當程式關閉時,此設定可確保Quartz.NET在退出之前等待Job正常結束。如果現在執行您的應用程式,您將看到Quartz服務啟動,並將有很多日誌輸出到控制檯:```csharpinfo: Quartz.Core.SchedulerSignalerImpl[0] Initialized Scheduler Signaller of type: Quartz.Core.SchedulerSignalerImplinfo: Quartz.Core.QuartzScheduler[0] Quartz Scheduler v.3.2.3.0 created.info: Quartz.Core.QuartzScheduler[0] JobFactory set to: Quartz.Simpl.MicrosoftDependencyInjectionJobFactoryinfo: Quartz.Simpl.RAMJobStore[0] RAMJobStore initialized.info: Quartz.Core.QuartzScheduler[0] Scheduler meta-data: Quartz Scheduler (v3.2.3.0) 'QuartzScheduler' with instanceId 'NON_CLUSTERED' Scheduler class: 'Quartz.Core.QuartzScheduler' - running locally. NOT STARTED. Currently in standby mode. Number of jobs executed: 0 Using thread pool 'Quartz.Simpl.DefaultThreadPool' - with 10 threads. Using job-store 'Quartz.Simpl.RAMJobStore' - which does not support persistence. and is not clustered.info: Quartz.Impl.StdSchedulerFactory[0] Quartz scheduler 'QuartzScheduler' initializedinfo: Quartz.Impl.StdSchedulerFactory[0] Quartz scheduler version: 3.2.3.0info: Quartz.Core.QuartzScheduler[0] Scheduler QuartzScheduler_$_NON_CLUSTERED started.info: Microsoft.Hosting.Lifetime[0] Application started. Press Ctrl+C to shut down....```現在,您已經將Quartz作為託管服務執行在您的應用程式中,但是現在還沒有新增需要執行的Job。## 建立一個IJob這個地方我建立一個簡單的服務,並且我可以從建構函式中獲取服務。```csharpusing Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;using Quartz;using System.Threading.Tasks;[DisallowConcurrentExecution]public class HelloWorldJob : IJob{ private readonly ILogger _logger; public HelloWorldJob(ILogger logger) { _logger = logger; } public Task Execute(IJobExecutionContext context) { _logger.LogInformation("Hello world!"); return Task.CompletedTask; }}```我還用[DisallowConcurrentExecution]特性,防止Quartz.NET嘗試同時運行同一個作業。### 設定Job這個地方通常使用Cron表示式,來設定job的執行時間。```csharppublic static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) => Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args) .ConfigureServices((hostContext, services) => { services.AddQuartz(q => { q.UseMicrosoftDependencyInjectionScopedJobFactory(); // Create a "key" for the job var jobKey = new JobKey("HelloWorldJob"); // Register the job with the DI container q.AddJob (opts => opts.WithIdentity(jobKey)); // Create a trigger for the job q.AddTrigger(opts => opts .ForJob(jobKey) // link to the HelloWorldJob .WithIdentity("HelloWorldJob-trigger") // give the trigger a unique name .WithCronSchedule("0/5 * * * * ?")); // run every 5 seconds }); services.AddQuartzHostedService(q => q.WaitForJobsToComplete = true); // ... });```現在執行應用程式,您將看到和以前相同的啟動訊息,然後每隔5秒鐘就會看到HelloWorldJob寫入控制檯的資訊:![](https://blog-1259586045.cos.ap-shanghai.myqcloud.com/clipboard_20210123_094338.png)## 將配置提取到appsettings.json一般情況,我們都不會把cron表示式寫死在程式碼中,一般是設定在appsettings.json中```csharp{ "Quartz": { "HelloWorldJob": "0/5 * * * * ?" }}```為了更簡單的註冊服務,這個地方我簡單做了一個封裝,這樣也更靈活。```csharppublic static class ServiceCollectionQuartzConfiguratorExtensions{ public static void AddJobAndTrigger ( this IServiceCollectionQuartzConfigurator quartz, IConfiguration config) where T : IJob { // Use the name of the IJob as the appsettings.json key string jobName = typeof(T).Name; // Try and load the schedule from configuration var configKey = $"Quartz:{jobName}"; var cronSchedule = config[configKey]; // Some minor validation if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(cronSchedule)) { throw new Exception($"No Quartz.NET Cron schedule found for job in configuration at {configKey}"); } // register the job as before var jobKey = new JobKey(jobName); quartz.AddJob (opts => opts.WithIdentity(jobKey)); quartz.AddTrigger(opts => opts .ForJob(jobKey) .WithIdentity(jobName + "-trigger") .WithCronSchedule(cronSchedule)); // use the schedule from configuration }}```然後修改Program.cs,然後使用擴充套件方法: ```csharppublic class Program{ public static void Main(string[] args) => CreateHostBuilder(args).Build().Run(); public static IHostBuilder CreateHostBuilder(string[] args) => Host.CreateDefaultBuilder(args) .ConfigureServices((hostContext, services) => { services.AddQuartz(q => { q.UseMicrosoftDependencyInjectionScopedJobFactory(); // Register the job, loading the schedule from configuration q.AddJobAndTrigger (hostContext.Configuration); }); services.AddQuartzHostedService(q => q.WaitForJobsToComplete = true); });}```再次執行該應用程式將提供相同的輸出:Job每5秒輸入一次資訊。> 原文作者: andrewlock> 原文連結: [https://andrewlock.net/using-quartz-net-with-asp-net-core-and-worker-services/]("https://andrewlock.net/using-quartz-net-with-asp-net-core-and-worker-services/") ### 最後歡迎掃碼關注我們的公眾號 【全球技術精選】,專注國外優秀部落格的翻譯和開源專案分享,也可以新增QQ群 897216102

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