High school grammar _ Morphology
- High school grammar _ Morphology
- One 、 Gerund _ constitute & features & function
- Two 、 Gerund _ tense & Voice
- 3、 ... and 、 Gerund _ Composite structure
- Four 、 Infinitives of verbs _ constitute & features & function
- 5、 ... and 、 Infinitives of verbs _ A verb used as an object & Omit
- 6、 ... and 、 Infinitives of verbs _ Tense and voice
- 7、 ... and 、 The distinction between gerund and infinitive
- 8、 ... and 、 The present participle and the past participle _ constitute & features & difference
- Nine 、 The present participle and the past participle _ Basic usage
- Ten 、 Independent nominative structure
- 11、 ... and 、 Adjectives and adverbs _ Basic usage & difference
- Twelve 、 Adjectives and adverbs _ comparative & highest
- 13、 ... and 、 Adjectives and adverbs _ Polysyllabic & Irregular composition
- fourteen 、 Adjectives and adverbs _ Special Usage
- 15、 ... and 、 Article _ Basic usage
- sixteen 、 Article _ zero article
One 、 Gerund _ constitute & features & function
01. The construction of gerund ：
Gerund is a non finite verb form of verb , In the same form as the present participle , from “ Verb primitives + -ing ” constitute .
A non finite verb is a form in which a verb cannot be a predicate , There are four kinds of ： Gerund 、 Now participle 、 Past participles and infinitives .
02. The characteristics of gerund
Gerund has the characteristics of both verb and noun .
Gerund has the characteristics of verb It also has the characteristics of nouns . Gerund The center is in the name , therefore Gerund, in the final analysis We still use it as a noun, but it retains the characteristics of a verb , Gerund is used as a noun but retains the characteristics of verb .
Gerund can take object 、 Adverbial or predicative .
The characteristic of its verb is that it can take object 、 Adverbial or predicative .
#： If it is a transitive verb, it can take an object , If a gerund is changed from a transitive verb, it can still take an object ; Then you can bring adverbials , Because modifying Verbs , We use adverbs as adverbials ？ So gerund can also take adverbial , Because common nouns don't have adverbials , Nouns have attributes, but they have the characteristics of verbs, so they can have adverbials . That can even be used as an expression .
I don’t like watching TV. I don't like watching TV .
#： here watching This is the gerund , because watch The word watch , It's a transitive verb , So it can take an object , The object is TV.
Getting up early is considered a good habit. Getting up early is considered a good habit
#： Now the gerund is getting Now, of course, gerund phrases getting up Get out of bed , that early It's just embellishment getting up It is the adverbial .
He dreamt of becoming a pilot. He dreams of becoming a pilot .
#: dreamt The original shape is dream Dream or dream ;becoming This is a gerund , because become It's a copula , A copula can be used as a predicative , So now it's up to become This is a gerund from a verb becoming You can also bring words , His expression is a pilot .
What word has object and what word has predicative , It depends on the verb . If this verb is a copula, then it is called predicative , If it's a transitive verb , What it brings is called object .
The verb features of gerund are also reflected in the change of tense and voice .
Besides , The verb features of gerund are also reflected in the change of tense and voice ,
#： Verbs have tense and voice changes . So gerund comes from verb , So it also has the change of tense and voice .
He insisted insist on being told the truth. He insisted on being told the truth .
#： What he insists on is “ Be informed of ”, Now let me tell you yes tell, But not directly telling , Because he was told the truth , It's not that he insists on telling people , At this time, we will use the passive voice of gerund being told.
I know nothing about his having served in the army forces . I didn't know he had served in the army .
Now he served in the army , This is the past. Please . That is to say, the action of gerund should take place before the predicate verb . At this time, we should use the perfect form of gerund having served.
The main feature of gerund is that it can act as subject in a sentence 、 Object or predicative .
The main feature of gerund is that it can act as subject in a sentence 、 Object or predicative .
#： A noun is the subject of a sentence 、 The object 、 An expression , Gerund can also be the subject 、 The object 、 An expression .
Smoking may cause cancer. Smoking can cause cancer .
Smoking As subject , Gerund as subject .
He is fond of playing football. He likes playing football .
#:be fond of I like it , stay be fond of In this structure ,of It's a preposition , Is there an object after a preposition . So now this playing He is the object . Of course. play Then an object is added The object is football.play It's an object with an object at the same time , Because it's an object because it's a noun , And then it takes an object because it's made up of Transitive Verbs play To the , So he can also take the object
My job is teaching English. My job is to teach English .
#：teaching In the copula is Behind Is it an expression
03. The function of gerund （ The question of what to do in a sentence .）
As subject ,use, good, pity, worth, terrible When a noun or adjective is used as a predicative , You can use it Be a subject of form , Put the gerund as the subject after .
“There is no + Gerund ” It is a common structure , amount to “ It is impossible to do sth. ”.
#： Isn't gerund a word with verb features used as a noun , Since it is used as a noun , So the most basic can be the subject .
Walking is good exercise. Walking is a good sport .
#：Walking It's a gerund as the subject , Why use gerund as the subject ？ From the perspective of Chinese ,“ Walking is a good sport ”, Walking is a gerund walk. Chinese is a relatively flexible language , It doesn't matter that the subject is a verb or something , But in English, the subject must be a noun or a word equivalent to a noun , So now the subject is take a walk Such verbs , We need to change it into a noun form . Verbs can be used as nouns , Then we can change it into a gerund . In short, if the subject in Chinese is a verb , Because we are going to use gerund as subject .
Seeing is believing. Seeing is believing. （ Seeing is believing ）.
#： See is the verb to be the subject, then we use seeing . The subject is a gerund , Of course, in this expression believing It's also a gerund .
Saying is easier than doing. It's easier said than done .
#： It's a verb as the subject , Let's change it to gerund saying . then easier More easily than doing, hinder doing It's also a gerund .
Being late is unforgivable here. It's unforgivable to be late here .
#：late It's an adjective here , Adjectives cannot be used as subjects in English . As a subject, we need words equivalent to nouns . Adjectives can be preceded by be Become a verb structure , And then put the verb be Turn it into a gerund .
Swimming is my favorite sport. Swimming is my favorite sport .
Reading is my favorite pastime. Reading is my favorite pastime .
#：past through , after ;time It's time pastime It's translated into entertainment here .
notes 1： use,good,pity,worth,terrible When a noun or adjective is used as a predicative , You can use it Make a formal expression , Put the gerund as the subject after .
It's no use waiting here. It's no use waiting here .
It's no good helping him. It's no use helping him .
#： The subject is helping him, The original sentence Helping him is no good.
notes 2. “There is no + Gerund ” It is a common structure , amount to “It is impossible to do sth.”.
#： It is impossible to do something .
- There is no accounting for taste. You can't explain taste .
- There is no persuading her. There's no way to convince her .
#：persuad It means to persuade 、 To persuade
- There is no trusting such a man. Such a person cannot be trusted .
Make a statement
#： Put it after the copula as a predicative
- That is asking for trouble. That's asking for trouble .
- The best policy is being honest.
- Her job is keeping the hall as clean as possible.
Be the object of a verb
The following verbs are often followed by gerunds as objects ：admit, stand, appreciate, avoid, complete,consider,deny,enjoy,escape,imagine,finish,keep,mind,practice,prevent,risk,suggest,allow,permit,recommend etc. .
- He enjoys playing football.
- He admitted taking the watch.
- I don't mind driving if you are tired.
- I always avoid
travelling Go outduring rush hour
As prepositional object
He left the room without saying a word.
I'm looking forward to seeing you soon. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon .
#：look forward to A common phrase means hope 、 yearn 、 expect .
He apologized for keeping me waiting.
#：for It's a gerund after a preposition .
To attribute , Gerund as attribute modifies noun , The combination of the two forms a compound noun .
- No one is allowed to speak aloud in the reading room.
- That is a shop dealing in walking sticks.
notes ： Gerund as attribute modifies noun , The combination of the two forms a compound noun .
waiting room、Swimming pool、sleeping pill、cooking oil.
Two 、 Gerund _ tense & Voice
01. The classification of gerund tense and voice
Gerund has the characteristics of verb , So there are tense and voice changes .
tense There are general and perfect forms ;
Voice There are general passive and complete passive .
02. Basic usage
The tense of gerund （ General style ）： active doing Express ; The passive voice consists of being done Express ; The tense of gerund （ Perfect form ） In the active voice having done Express ; The passive voice consists of having been done Express .
#： To finish is to have have Or is it has The past participle of the verb is added after it, and now is the completion of gerund ,have perhaps has It has to be in the form of gerund , The gerund is having;having It's a gerund ,been Show the completion of , past participle done Reflect the passive .
tense active passive General style doing being done Perfect form having done having been done
Gerund has no independent absolute tense meaning , Its tense meaning is subordinate to the tense of the predicate verb in the sentence . The action indicated by the general form of gerund occurs at the same time or after the action of predicate verb , In general ; The action of the gerund perfective occurs before the predicate .
- I am thinking of getting a new dictionary.（ in the future ） I want to buy a dictionary now .
- She is proud of being beautiful.（ meanwhile ）
- I am confident of his succeeding.（ in the future ）
- I have no doubt of his passing the exam.（ in the future ）
- She advised our studying science.（ in the future ）
- I approved of his taking part in the race.（ At the same time or later ）
- Learning is important to modern life.（ General situation ）
- I enjoy listening to music.（ General situation ）
- He never talked to me about his having been in Paris.（ Before ）
- He is proud of having won the first prize.（ Before ）
- She was not sure of having done anything wrong.（ Before ）
notes 1： And preposition on/upon or after Continuous time , The general form of gerund can also express an action that precedes the predicate verb , under these circumstances , The action of the predicate verb usually follows the action of gerund and so on .
#：on/upon fixed collocation ,on/upon + Gerund means one ... Just ... Equivalent to as soon as What does it mean .
- On coming in, she put a pile of books on the desk.
- On getting off the plane, I called my mom.
- After entering the room, I told everybody the good news.
notes 2： remember and forger The action of the general form of the gerund after the verb takes place before the predicate .
#：remember doing Consciousness is remembering to do something ;forget doing Forget to do sth , I have done it , That's what I did before .
- Do you remember seeing him when he was a little boy?（ It is customary to complete without gerund ）
- I remember telling you the story.
The active voice of gerund means active action , Passive voice means passive action , The logical subject of action can be found in sentences . In the active voice , The logical subject acts ; In the passive voice , The logical subject bears the action .
- He doesn't like being flattered.
- Respecting others means being respected. Respect means to be respected .
- He will get angry at being offended.
- She likes being seen. She likes to be in the limelight .
- I heard of his having been chosen to be the coach of the team.
- The housing problem is far from being settled.
- Nowadays being killed in traffic accidents is a common occurrence.（ The logical subject is omitted people's）
special case ： Gerund in need、want、require、deserve Equal representation ” need , Worth “ And other verbs and adjectives worth In the back , The passive meaning is often expressed in the active form .
#： After these words , To express the passive meaning , But instead of passive form, use active form .
- That needs explaining.
- The room needs
- Your hair wants cutting.
- This method deserves recommending.
- The flowers need watering.
notes ： The above and several verbs , You can also use the infinitive passive , The meaning remains unchanged .
- That needs to be explained,
- The room needs to be cleaned up.
- Your hair wants to be cut.