What is? ECMAScript?

ECMAScript Is the specification of browser scripting language , And as we know it js Language , Such as JavaScript It is the concrete realization of the specification .es6 like Java Of jdk.

One 、es6 Grammar explanation :let Declare variables

1、var Declared variables tend to cross fields ;let Declared variables have strict local scope

var a = 1;
let b = 2;
console.log(a) // 1
console.log(b) // Uncaught ReferenceError: b is not defined

2、var It can be stated many times ;let It can only be declared once

 	var m = 1;
var m = 2;
let n = 1;
let n = 2;
console.log(m) //2
console.log(n) //Uncaught SyntaxError: Identifier 'n' has already been declared

3、var Variable promotion ;let No variable promotion

var x = 10; // undefined
let y = 12; // Uncaught ReferenceError: Cannot access 'y' before initialization

Be careful : Get used to it in the future let Declare variables

Two 、es6 Grammar explanation :const Declare variables It's equivalent to declaring a constant

1、 No change is allowed after the declaration

	const a = 1;
console.log(a) //1
a = 2;
console.log(a) // Uncaught TypeError: Assignment to constant variable.

2、 Once declared must be initialized , Otherwise, an error will be reported

  const a;
a = 1;
console.log(a) //Uncaught SyntaxError: Missing initializer in const declaration

3、 ... and 、es6 Grammar explanation : Deconstruction expression

1、 An array of deconstruction

 let arr = [1, 2, 3];
let [a, b, c] = arr;
console.log(a, b, c) //1,2,3

2、 Object to deconstruct

    const person = {
name: "qiyue",
age: 23,
language: ['java', 'js', 'css']
const { name, age, language } = person
console.log(name, age, language) //qiyue 23 (3) ["java", "js", "css"]
    const person = {
name: "qiyue",
age: 23,
language: ['java', 'js', 'css']
// from person Parsing out name The value of is assigned to abc
const { name:abc, age, language } = person
console.log(abc, age, language) //qiyue 23 (3) ["java", "js", "css"]

Four 、es6 Grammar explanation : String extension

 	let str = "hello.vue";
console.log(str.startsWith("hello")) //true
console.log(str.endsWith("vue")) //true
console.log(str.includes("e")) //true
console.log(str.includes("hello")) //true

5、 ... and 、es6 Grammar explanation : String template

let str = `<span>hello world</span>`
console.log(str) // <span>hello world</span>

6、 ... and 、es6 Grammar explanation : String inserts variables and expressions . Variables are written in ${} in ,${} You can put js expression

let info = ` I am a ${abc}, This year, ${age}`
console.log(info) // I am a qiyue, This year, 23
let info = ` I am a ${abc}, This year, ${age}`
console.log(info) // I am a qiyue, This year, 23
let info = ` I am a ${abc}, This year, ${age}`
console.log(info) // I am a qiyue, This year, 23
   function fun() {
return " This is a function ";
let info = ` I am a ${abc}, This year, ${age + 10}, I want to say :${fun()}`
console.log(info) // I am a qiyue, This year, 33, I want to say : This is a function

7、 ... and 、es6 Grammar explanation : Function optimization

1、 Function default : Write the default value directly to the parameter , If not, the default value will be used automatically

function add(a, b = 1) {
return a + b;
console.log(add(10)) //11

2、 Uncertain parameters : Indefinite parameters use the number of parameters to represent uncertainty , Form like ... Variable name , from ... Add the identifier of the named parameter . Named parameters can only be placed at the end of the parameter list , And there is only one indefinite parameter

 function fun(...params) {
fun(1, 2) // 2
fun(1, 2, 3, 4) //4

3、 Arrow function

// before 
var sum = function (a, b) {
c = a + b
return c
console.log(sum(2, 3)) // 5
// Arrow function
var sum2 = (a, b) => a + b;
console.log(sum2(2, 4)) // 6

4、 Arrow function combined with deconstruction expression

    // before 
function hello(person) {
console.log("hello" + person.name)
hello(person); //helloqiyue
// Arrow function
let hello2 = params => console.log("hello" + person.name)
hello2(person) //helloqiyue
// Arrow function plus deconstruction expression
var hello3 = ({ name }) => console.log("hello" + name)
hello3(person) //helloqiyue

8、 ... and 、es6 Grammar explanation : Object optimization

1、es6 to Object Many new methods have been extended , Such as

  • key(obj): Get all of the objects key Forming an array of
  • value(obj): Get all of the objects value Forming an array of
  • entries(obj): Gets all the key and value Two dimensional array formed
  const person = {
name: "qiyue",
age: 23,
language: ["java", "js", "css"]
console.log(Object.keys(person)) //["name","age","language"]
console.log(Object.values(person)) // ["qiyue",23,Array(3)]
console.log(Object.entries(person)) //[Array(2),Array(2),Array(2)]

2、Object.assign The first parameter of the method is the target object , Later parameters are all source objects ; Assign the properties of the source object to the target object

	onst target = { a: 1 }
const source1 = { b: 2 }
const source2 = { c: 3 }
Object.assign(target, source1, source2);
console.log(target) //{a: 1, b: 2, c: 3}

3、 Declaration object abbreviation

	// before 
const name = 'sanyue'
const age = 21
// Set property values name,age To assign separately to person1 Object's name,age, After that is the property value
const person1 = { name: name, age: age }
console.log(person1) //{name: "sanyue", age: 21} //es6: The property name is the same as the property value variable name , It can be omitted
const person2 = {name,age}
console.log(person2) //{name: "sanyue", age: 21}

4、 The function properties of an object are abbreviated

 let person3 = {
name: "qiyue",
// before
eat: function (food) {
console.log(this.name + " Eating " + food);
// In the arrow function this Out of commission , Using objects . attribute
eat2: food => console.log(person3.name + " Eating " + food),
eat3(food) {
console.log(this.name + " Eating " + food)
person3.eat(" Apple ") //qiyue Eating apples
person3.eat2(" Banana ") // qiyue Eating bananas
person3.eat3(" watermelon ") //qiyue Eating watermelon

5、 Object's extension operator

Extension operator (...) Used to extract all traversable properties of the parameter object and copy it to the current object

    // Copy the object ( Deep copy )
let p1 = { name: "qiyue", age: 23 }
let obj = { ...p1 }
console.log(obj)//{name: "qiyue", age: 23} // Merge objects
let age1 = { age: 24 }
let name1 = { name: "qiyue" }
let p2 = {}
p2 = { ...age1, ...name1 }
console.log(p2) //{age: 24, name: "qiyue"}
// If p2 The Central Plains originally had name,age Properties will be overridden

Nine 、es6 Grammar explanation :map and reduce Method

1、map(): Receive a function , All elements in the original array are processed with this function and put into the new array to return

 let arr = ["1", "3", "4", "23"]
arr = arr.map(item => item * 2)
console.log(arr) //[2, 6, 8, 46]

2、reduce(): Execute the callback function for each element in the array in turn , Does not include elements in the array that have been deleted or not assigned values

grammar :arr.reduce(callbace,[initialValue])

callback( Functions that execute each value in the array , There are four parameters )

  • previousValue( The value returned by the last call callback , Or the initial value provided (initialValue))
  • currentValue( Elements currently being processed in the array )、
  • index( The index of the current element in the array )
  • array( call reduce Array of )

initialValue( As the first call callback The first parameter of )

    let arr1 = [2, 40, -10, 6]
let result = arr1.reduce((a, b) => {
return a + b
}, 10)

Ten 、es6 Grammar explanation : modularization

What is modularity : Modularity is the splitting of code , Easy to reuse . similar Java The guide package in , To use a bag , Must lead the pack . Two Js There is no concept of package in , In exchange for modules

The function of the module mainly consists of two commands :export and import

  • export Command is used to specify the external interface of the module ,export Not only can you export objects , everything js Variables can be exported . such as : Basic type variables 、 function 、 Array 、 object
  • import The command is used to import functions provided by other modules

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