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特朗普最后一击:再打华为,8份许可被撤销,150份申请大部分被拒绝

2021-01-18 15:53:29 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"特朗普在卸任前三天,再次出招试图打压华为。路透社援引知情人士消息称,特朗普政府通知包括芯片生产商英特尔在内的几家华为供应商,将撤销部分对华为销售产品的许可证,并打算拒绝其他几十个向华为供货的申请。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"路透社认为,这或是特朗普政府任期内对华为的最后一击,也是美国政府长期以来旨在削弱华为所采取的行动的最新一招。特朗普政府一直声称,华为威胁到美国国家安全和外交政策利益。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"此外,据路透社看到的一封记录这些动作的电子邮件,美国半导体工业协会(Semiconductor Industry Association)当地时间1月15日表示,商务部已发布了“否决多个对华为出口许可申请,并取消此前发放的一个出口许可的意向”。邮件称,行动涉及半导体行业“广泛”产品,并询问企业是否收到了通知。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"消息人士称,在此次行动前,约有价值1200亿美元的150个出口许可等待审批,由于美国政府各机构无法就是否应该发放这些许可证达成共识,这些许可证目前处于被搁置的状态。上述邮件还指出,企业为了这些许可决定已经等了“好几个月”,现任政府还有不到一周时间就离任,处理这件事是个挑战。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"截至目前,美国商务部、半导体协会和英特尔方面尚未对此作出回应。"}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“最后的疯狂”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"据悉,收到美国政府“拒绝意图”通知的公司有20天的响应时间。如果结果有任何变化,美国商务部则有45天的时间告知这些公司,否则这些更改将成为最终决定。然后,这些半导体企业有45天的时间进行上诉。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"美国早在2019年5月就将华为列入商务部的“实体清单”,限制供应商向华为出售美国商品和技术。期间美国也一而再再而三地升级对华为的限制,包括加强出口管制,限制美国企业在国外销售使用美国技术制造的半导体的许可证的权力。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"消息人士表示,另外有价值2800亿属于华为的商品和技术许可尚未被处理,但现在被拒绝的可能性更高。美国去年8月出台的一项规定明确指出,具有5G功能的产品可能会被拒绝,但针对不是太先进的技术销售,则会依据具体情况决定。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"消息人士称,从1月4日开始,美国政府与商务部、国务院、国防部和能源部的高级官员举行了6次会议,最终做出上述决定和通知。同时就哪些技术能够实现5G制定了详细的规范,并在规范出台后,立即执行该标准。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"该人士进一步说,根据这些规范,美国官员否决了150个有争议的许可申请中的大多数,并撤销了8个许可证。美国政府的最新行动,是在前贸易律师史都华(Corey Stewart)出任美国商务部的资深职位后开始执行,特朗普希望藉此推动强硬的中国政策。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"除了打击华为,1月14日,美国再将9家中国企业列入所谓“与中国军方相关”的黑名单中,其中包括小米集团及飞机制造商中国商飞。路透社评论称,特朗普政府不断扩大投资禁令“黑名单”,是要在任期最后几天巩固其对华强硬的“政治遗产”,截至目前已有包括中芯国际、中海油在内的35家中企被列入名单中。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"针对美方持续打压华为等中国企业的行为,中方此前已多次作出回应。中国外交部发言人赵立坚1月14日曾表示,中方在有关问题上的立场是一贯的、明确的。“中国政府一贯鼓励中国企业按照市场原则和国际规则、依法依规开展对外经济合作。我们反对的是将经贸问题政治化,滥用国家力量、泛化国家安全概念,无端打压外国企业。美方应该切实尊重市场经济和公平竞争原则,遵守国际经贸规则,为包括中国企业在内的各国企业在美投资经营提供开放、公平、公正、非歧视的营商环境。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"参考链接:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/cn.reuters.com\/article\/usa-huawei-tech-trump-0117-sun-idCNKBS29N01U"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/usa-huawei-tech\/exclusive-trump-admin-slams-chinas-huawei-halting-shipments-from-intel-others-sources-idUSL1N2JS0HT"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"延伸阅读:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.infoq.cn\/article\/h8R04zpJo0glo3m21JXB\n","title":"xxx","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“被禁”的 2020:华为、中芯国际、台积电和 TikTok 都经历了什么?"}]},{"type":"text","text":"》"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.infoq.cn\/article\/OVl29YJ4D8tSuXpc6zBH","title":"xxx","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"120天已至,华为全面断芯,没有Plan B"}]},{"type":"text","text":"》"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.infoq.cn\/article\/UfQgC9RfdxdCONZGBvxx\n","title":"xxx","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"美国对华为极限施压!全面封锁第三方芯片采购路径"}]},{"type":"text","text":"》"}]}]}

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