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中国芯片人才荒困局:我想去互联网行业挣快钱

2021-01-16 14:46:35 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中国“芯事” :人才之痛。"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"奇缺的芯片人才"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"造芯的人还是太少了。数据显示,2021年前后,我国集成电路行业人才需求规模约为 72.2 万人,人才缺口达26.1万,人才供需矛盾突出。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《中国集成电路产业人才白皮书(2019—2020年版)》(以下简称《白皮书》统计,截至2019年年底,我国直接从事集成电路产业的人员规模约为51.19万人,较去年增加5.09万人,其中设计业、制造业和封装测试业的从业人员规模分别为18.12万人、17.19万人和15.88万人。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"按当前产业发展态势及对应人均产值推算,《白皮书》预测,到2022年前后全行业人才需求将达到74.45万人左右,其中设计业为27.04万人,制造业为26.43万人,封装测试为20.98万人。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"产业链上,芯片设计业的人才短缺状况略好于芯片制造和芯片封测。但总体而言,芯片人才匮乏形势仍然严峻,人才结构明显失衡。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"上述白皮书提到,当前产业里,掌握核心技术能力的顶尖人才尤其是领军人才最为稀缺,复合型人才、国际型创新人才和应用型人才也较为紧缺。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"不久前,中芯国际“蒋来梁走”事件震动产业,引发业内对于顶尖人才问题的讨论。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"有分析人士认为,技术大牛梁孟松的出走,或将拖慢中芯国际乃至中国的半导体制造工艺研发进程。一封离职信发出后,中芯国际市值一天内蒸发248亿,足可见梁孟松之于中芯国际的重要性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而后伴随着梁孟松留任,事情迎来转机。这场人事地震虽暂告一段落,却也再度暴露出了集成电路行业高端人才匮乏的难题。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"任正非曾表示,“芯片制造的每一台设备、每一项材料都非常尖端、非常难做,没有高端的有经验的专家是做不出来的。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"领军人才流失会在一定程度上影响芯片研发的进度,甚至系关企业“生死存亡”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"想当年,梁孟松从台积电离开加入三星后,帮助三星成功研发出了14nm工艺,并打败了老东家台积电。此前,中芯国际创始人张汝京也曾提到,很多新加坡、韩国、美国等国家的芯片企业来挖他们优秀的芯片工程师,辛苦培养起来的人才因此流失了,进而导致芯片研发进度缓慢。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“芯片行业是技术密集型行业,并不是纯‘砸钱’就能干的,需要创始人\/团队足够牛”,新鼎资本创始人张驰向InfoQ表示,他在投资芯片项目时,会将人的因素放在第一位,格外看重创始团队是否是顶尖的芯片人才。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"抢人大战"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"受政策利好,中美贸易摩擦等因素刺激,近几年,芯片产业掀起创业潮流,互联网公司、甚至手机厂商也半路出家加入造芯阵营,业内对于优秀人才的需求空前旺盛。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但芯片人才存在巨大的缺口,优秀人才往往格外稀缺、有限,供需关系的紧张加剧了“人才争夺战”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"行业招聘十分火爆。“猎头是一种哪里火就往哪里钻的‘生物’”,胡玮炜(化名)是看芯片和人工智能方向的资深猎头,入行3年来,她见证了芯片行业热度不断飙升的过程:一些专看半导体方向的猎头团队从零起步并逐渐壮大;一些大的猎头公司开始拓展芯片、半导体的业务。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"半导体火起来了,也意味着行业竞争更激烈了。“虽然职位需求变多了,但入行的猎头越来越多后,反而不如以前做得安心了”,胡玮炜策略计算了下,她目前平均每月招人的业绩与过去相比并没有太大的变化。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"人才稀缺,供小于求,芯片从业者的涨薪增幅不断扩大。胡玮炜说,一般而言,芯片工程师跳槽的薪资涨幅在20%-30%左右。而现在,大部分芯片工程师跳槽的薪资涨幅已在45% 以上。假设一位应届毕业生要10万的年薪,有些企业为了留住人,甚至会主动为其加到15万年薪。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"很多公司不惜重金挖人。一位业内人士方思淼(化名)向InfoQ透露,最近某手机公司为了方便挖人,专门在另一家做手机芯片的公司门口设立了一个办公室,但凡是能力强的候选人,薪资翻倍不再话下。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"文治资本合伙人唐德明投资的一家芯片设计初创公司最近在招人,“有时候我都觉得工资高的有点离谱。可能这也因为上海芯片设计公司扎堆,人才短缺相对严重招致了恶性竞争,企业不得已用高工资招徕人才”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"国内的芯片半导体公司对外部人才的依赖性较强,业内高端的芯片人才绝大多数拥有海外背景,他们往往都是被挖来的,不少公司去国外挖人,例如合肥长鑫半导体的技术团队部分来自台湾,部分来自韩国;京东方在起步时用的是韩国团队。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"这几年,内地企业喜欢去台湾挖人。此前《日经亚洲评论》报道,自2019年以来,泉芯集成电路制造和武汉弘芯半导体及其多家联营公司和子公司一共从台积电“挖走”了 100 多名经验丰富的工程师和管理人员。不过对于这一数字,方思淼表示,“实际被挖走的人数不止100多人,估计翻倍都有可能”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“从台湾过来的芯片工程师,薪资直接翻倍”,方思淼告诉InfoQ。为了吸引台湾人才,内地企业开出了丰厚的条件待遇,不仅薪资翻番,升职顺畅,还有不菲的住房补贴。不少台湾工程师因为更有竞争力的待遇而远赴大陆工作,业内甚至有说法称,在大陆干上3年的收入能抵得上在台湾干10年的水平。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"很有意思的是,“挖人”,“抢人”对于很多芯片公司来说,是提升研发能力颇为行之有效的策略。夸张一点说,全球芯片的成长史可能就是一部“挖人”史,例如三星在入局半导体业务早期,曾为了提高技术研发能力,投入重金到美国、日本等国挖人。据悉,李健熙曾先后50多次亲赴硅谷招人。如此在招揽人才上不遗余力成就了三星后来的芯片巨头地位。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"张驰认为,从某个角度上看,“烧钱挖人”是好事,烧钱挖人的结果会让更核心的人才更值钱,激励更多人成长为核心人才,带动高端人才涌现。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“人才流动是市场行为,过度挖人对产业不利”,深圳市半导体行业协会秘书长常军锋在接受InfoQ采访时表示。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“烧钱挖人”现象易形成恶性循环,很多人趋向福利,单纯因为谁给的钱多就去哪儿,只盯着工资看的短视行为并不是一件好事。一味从外面挖人也牵涉到企业文化、管理中的问题,强化自己的团队才是长久之计。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"人才流动由供需关系决定,烧钱挖人的状况可能还会持续一段时间。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“干半导体的不如干互联网的”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“做芯片是不可能做芯片的,这辈子都不可能做芯片”,一位网友在某社交平台套用了一句网络流行段子来吐槽芯片行业,在他看来,做芯片投入高、回报却太少。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"曾在过去很长的一段时间里,“不赚钱,又苦又累,收入又低” 是集成电路行业的真实写照。“很多人不愿意进晶圆厂,因为晶圆厂的工作很累,待遇相对较低,业内做设计的公司多,很多学生毕业后倾向于去设计公司”,方思淼说。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"与芯片设计和芯片制造相比,更偏劳动密集型企业的芯片封装业在薪资水平上要逊色很多。芯片封装行业资深从业者白杰(化名)告诉InfoQ,芯片封装工程师平均月薪在10K-30K之间,薪资水平主要看经历和学历。除高端岗位外,封装工程师普遍学历不如制造和设计,芯片设计倾向于招硕士以上学历。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"较低的薪资水平是导致芯片行业人才流失的主要原因之一。中芯国际人才流失率居高不下,其在圈内被调侃为‘斯米克血汗工厂’,工资待遇在行业里垫底。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一份数据显示,超80%集成电路科班毕业的学生在毕业后选择了转行,比例极高。很多人才流入了互联网、金融等热门行业。“干半导体的不如干互联网的”,“干硬件的不如干软件的”...圈内常存在这样的“鄙视链”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"例如芯片设计业中的数字前端岗位,虽然前端人才需求不少,但因跟计算机科学和软件联系紧密,许多数字芯片设计专业学生毕业后大都去了互联网公司。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“一个学生,当一份阿里的offer 和半导体初创小公司的offer摆在你面前,你会怎么选?转不到互联网公司的模拟射频岗,人才需求又没有数字前端岗那么多,那还不转金融,以后怎么办”?楚悦(化名)目前在国外某大学就读芯片专业,谈及就业现状,她看到了很多现实的因素。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"更高的收入、有期权、稳定性和平台资源是互联网公司及独角兽创业公司吸引芯片领域人才的因素。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"胡玮炜提到了一组数据,同等硕士学位的芯片人才年薪不超过20万,但同等学历的AI算法工程师年薪轻松超过40万。单这一年20万的收入差距可能已经足够让人转行了。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"国内芯片公司与互联网公司的薪酬差距较大。国内软件工程师的薪酬是芯片工程师薪酬的两倍是普遍现象。但在芯片的第一大国美国,二者差距较小,例如英特尔的芯片工程师可能与谷歌、Facebook的软件工程师的薪酬在同等水平。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"芯片行业的薪资不及互联网行业,一个原因在于当互联网的热潮正盛时,芯片还‘冷’着。2005-2015年,是互联网的黄金十年。2016年时,国内芯片行业还处在不温不火的状态,在此后的三四年里,行业才渐渐热起来。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"高端进口依赖,造芯难,赚钱更难"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"除薪资待遇,工作强度等因素外,我国集成电路行业人才缺口困境的根源,一方面是因为,过去若干年,芯片行业依赖进口。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“过去不重视集成电路行业,一直以来的思想观念认为‘造不如买’,因此大量的集成电路芯片依靠进口。进口的太多了,必然导致国产化弱,没有土壤培养人才,人才缺口由此出现,人才断档严重”,张驰表示。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"高端芯片对进口的依赖尤甚,核心产品缺乏自主研发,以致高端人才不足。当美科技禁令等“卡脖子”时,长期积弊的人才不足危机就可能骤然凸显,令人猝不及防。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我国芯片行业本身起步较晚,公司间企业文化管理问题积弊较多,投资效率低,加上国外在方方面面‘卡脖子’,目前我国整个半导体水平与国外相比差距较大,还处在最基本的代工状态。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在全球芯片半导体产业的国际分工中,我国的封测领域是最为突出、是发展相对较好的领域。芯片制造和芯片设计还在“受制”阶段。设计和制造目前仍主要依靠军工老一辈的积累和回国的技术人才带队。如芯片设计的数字岗,“数字后端是一个以一敌十的岗位,主要帮助训练EDA工具布局布线,这行多靠经验‘吃饭’,但据说‘教会了徒弟饿死师傅’”,楚悦说。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"人才缺口的第二个深层次原因是,缺乏资金培养人才。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"半导体行业马太效应明显,行业几乎所有的资源都聚拢在头部企业手里。‘老大吃肉,老二喝汤,老三吃剩的,其他的没什么存在感”,是这一行的典型特征。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"芯片产业周期长,投入大,利润率低。过去,集成电路行业A股上市的市值不高,赚钱效应少,赚钱很难,很多企业赚不到钱。在这种情况下,企业就没法给员工开出高工资。没有高薪也就无法聘到优秀的人才。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“去芯片初创公司,它可能连多流几次片的钱都没有,你敢待吗”,楚悦再一次抛出了犀利的反问。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"情形在发生变化。张驰表示,自2019年以来,中国有100多家集成电路企业陆续上市,融资额加起来高达数千亿。芯片企业已经比过去更有钱了,这意味着有能力给出更高的工资,招到更好的人,形成良性循环。可以看到,近几年,芯片工程师的工资水平在快速地提高。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"疯狂的芯片培训,到底靠不靠谱?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"缺人的另一根源在于人才培养机制。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"半导体产业已迎来快速发展的窗口期,但现有的人才培养速度还远远跟不上。有数据统计,未来两年,我国高校能够培养出来的毕业生总数仅有约3.5万人。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"国内仅有少数高校开设了集成电路设计与集成系统专业,除了一些985、211高校,如上海交大设有微纳电子学院,多教授偏芯片设计的知识,普通本科缺少对半导体设计和加工的经验。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"训练一个芯片设计工程师需要‘砸钱’流片积累经验,这一块大多依托高校培养人才。楚悦坦言,“高校里有科研经费砸钱流片的老师没空带学生,有空带学生的老师没钱频繁稳定流片。高校流片不稳定不密集,学生流片少经验少,人才断档就更严重”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"高校芯片教育现存的缺点是,老师基本没在工厂待过,芯片制造的细节、设备操作等实践类技能缺乏,不会教实操的问题。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"今年10月,国内首个芯片大学 — 南京集成电路大学宣布成立,消息一出旋即引起热议。此大学并非是传统意义上的高校,其定位为产教融合平台。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"业内讨论焦点在于,办芯片大学能否解决人才困局?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对此,唐德明的观点认为,集成电路培训教育关键在于得有产业界的人才专门授课。目前来看,南京芯片大学的运作形式类似于高级培训机构,其只能培养低端芯片人才,中高端的芯片人才还得依靠在高端集成电路公司里工作若干年培养起来,当然先打基础也很重要。此外,芯片大学后续的资金投入、生源、商业化运作模式是否可行,如何盈利等这些仍需要时间验证。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"芯片热潮下,私营的线下芯片培训班也异常火热。有不少非专业背景的人希望通过芯片培训跨行进入到芯片领域来。据豹变报道,有培训机构学员暴增2倍,有学员上了4个月课,结业后拿到了30万年薪,其疯狂程度可见一斑。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"整体上看,芯片培训班的规模还比较小,业内做的比较成功的是半导体设计版图培训班,与设计公司对接紧密,能形成商业化运作闭环。芯片培训这种形式对于培养芯片人才能起到多大的作用尚未可知,其商业化前景还不明朗。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"集成电路技术门槛较高,横跨物理、化学、材料、化工等多学科知识的融合,不同工种间领域知识纵深,芯片设计、生产、设备都是经验累积的过程,学术是基础,关键在于实践经验积累,不是短时间就能速成的,一般而言,培养中低端基础性人才大概需要3-4年,中高端人才可能需要十年、二十年甚至更久。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"造芯没有捷径,培养芯片人才亦不能仰赖“速成法”。InfoQ接触到的多位专家一致认为,培养芯片人才,要重视产学研结合。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"值得一提的是。近日,国务院学位委员会、教育部正式发布了关于设置“交叉学科”门类、“集成电路科学与工程”和“国家安全学”一级学科的通知,相信随着集成电路被设置为一级学科,能够加速人才储备。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对于企业来说,需要建立起内部培训机制,强化内部人才培养。像英特尔等外企芯片巨头多设"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"有完善的内培机制,安排专人高管负责培训,应届毕业生进来后,会有资深工程师一对一带。与外企相比,当前,国内芯片公司内部培养机制还没普遍建立起来,业内如中芯国际、兆易创新等公司在做一些尝试。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“国内所有的人才培养形式,都可以促进产业正向发展,但要避免鱼龙混杂”,常军锋的建议一语中的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中国芯2020:热火沸腾与冰雪冷寂"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"“我认为只要芯片这个行业热,大家都愿意投钱‘砸’,那这个行业就能不断地涌现出人才来”,张驰认为,“要解决人才困境问题,实际上办法就一点,给芯片核心人才足够多的工资,TA一定会来”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"张驰进一步表示,国家已认识到了这一点,科创板的推出便是例证。让一些芯片企业到科创板上市,获得高估值。行业的资金足够充裕后,必然能让全社会最优质的人才进入集成电路行业。最终的落脚点都是资金,收入高的行业,才能有最优质的人才。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"近年来,国家还推出了减税政策、十四五规划、大型基金投资等一系列政策支持芯片半导体发展。2020年,国家利好政策带动A股集成电路板块迎来爆发,龙头企业暴涨数倍,集成电路行业二级市场赚钱效应凸显。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"二级市场推动下,一级市场的资金也开始往芯片方向聚集,“不管是初创还是成熟的项目,只要是国内投资机构,不论是政府基金还是民间基金,基本没有不投集成电路的,投资的方向逐渐从集成电路设计往更难的集成电路制造和集成电路装备等细分领域拓展”,张驰向InfoQ形容资本在集成电路行业的火爆程度。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"热火之下,亦不能忽视泡沫。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"某半导体基金投资人于凯(化名)坦言,市场上,拿PPT融资的现象屡见不鲜。“我曾遇到过一个项目,上面写了3个顶级专家,却没什么实质性的产品研发实施可行性方案。对此我心存疑虑。顶尖人才得把产品做出来,能卖到市场上去,才真正算是成功的项目”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"conte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的芯片需要进口。“如果能把这85%里的一部分实现国产替代,就已经很不错了,这是一个需要慢慢做的过程,短时间内没办法解决”,张驰表示。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"国产化替代的历史进程,也必将是国内芯片人才缺口顽疾不断被缩小的过程。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"(注:为保护受访者隐私,文中胡玮炜、方思淼、于凯、楚悦、"},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"白杰"},{"type":"text","text":"均为化名)"}]}]}

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