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苹果或于明年下架窃取用户隐私的 App,加强对用户隐私的保护

2020-12-10 10:49:42 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我们通常都是看到某 App 被曝光未经允许跟踪用户隐私后,才发现自己也在使用同一款 App,后知后觉地吐槽。对于 iPhone 用户来说,或许明年以后就不用担心这种情况的发生了。据报道,苹果高管警告称,从 2021 年开始,苹果可能会删除未经允许跟踪用户的应用程序,此举有望提高iPhone用户的隐私安全性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"跟踪用户隐私?苹果:删了它"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"据报道称,苹果即将推出的这项新功能名叫 App Tracking Transparency,该功能原计划于 2020 年初推出,但因故推迟。苹果希望开发者调整 App 以解决隐私问题。苹果威胁称,如果 App 的开发者拒绝使用这项新功能,苹果将会把该 App 从 App Store 中删除。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"从苹果的开发者官网中可以看到对 App Tracking Transparency 这项功能的介绍:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"如果您的应用收集有关最终用户的数据并将其与其他公司共享,以跨应用和网站进行跟踪,请使用 AppTrackingTransparency 框架。AppTrackingTransparency 框架向用户提出应用程序跟踪授权请求,并提供跟踪授权状态。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"要使用 AppTrackingTransparency 框架,请执行以下操作:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"numberedlist","attrs":{"start":1,"normalizeStart":1},"content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":1,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"设置一个在用户设备上显示的系统权限警报请求。"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":2,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"调用以向最终用户显示应用程序跟踪授权请求。"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":3,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"使用来确定应用跟踪许可的状态。请参阅以获取状态枚举。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"更多详情请移步"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/developer.apple.com\/documentation\/apptrackingtransparency","title":"xxx","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"苹果开发者官网"}]},{"type":"text","text":"。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"一些科技公司和广告商对苹果这一新功能产生了质疑,他们觉得这一举措明显伤害到了一部分开发商,例如游戏公司,很多不需要用户“氪金”的游戏公司都是依靠广告来获得收益。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对此,苹果软件工程资深副总裁 Craig Federighi 认为,用户应该有权知道自己是否被追踪。Craig Federighi 表示:“明年(2021 年)年初,我们就会要求所有 App 支持这一新功能,如果想追踪就必须获得用户明确的许可。如果开发者未能达标,苹果可以将 App 从 App Store 下架。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"有数字广告公司认为,大多用户会给予 App 许可权。Craig Federighi 称:“如果你的业务模式建立在侵入式追踪之上,那你就不会追求透明,也不会尊重用户选择。”他还说有些企业肆无忌惮,极力想维持侵犯隐私的现状,苹果希望世界看清这一点。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Craig Federighi 指出,行业将会调整,在没有侵入式追踪的前提下提供有效的广告。他说:“让一切回到正轨需要时间、需要合作、需要倾听。我们相信结果将是革命性的。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"网友看法"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我们上午在浏览器中搜索了某品牌的硬盘评测后,下午就会收到来自于淘宝、京东推送的硬盘广告。广告商总能对广告进行精准投放,需要对每位用户都进行标记,即俗称的设备唯一标识。一般情况下,Android 设备常用的有三种设备标识:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"Device ID;可以用系统提供的TelephonyManager 服务来获取,具有唯一性。"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"IMEI:国际移动设备识别码,即我们通常所说的手机序列号;"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"mac Address:局域网地址,包含了wifi mac 和蓝牙mac,用来确认网上设备位置的地址,通常用于获取用户的地理位置信息。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而在 iOS 设备中,苹果自 iOS 5 起陆续禁止了 IMEI、UDID、mac Address 和 openUDID 等多种标识方式,目前有两种主要的标识方式:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"bulletedlist","content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"IDFA:广告标识符,于 iOS 6 时代发布,即满足广告商的追踪需求,又避免用户设备不被 App 过度追踪的解决方案;"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"IDFV:应用开发商标识符,用于分析用户在应用内的行为,一般卸载软件后就会被重置。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"虽然苹果在保护用户隐私方面下了很大力气,但“上有政策,下有对策。”依旧有很多广告厂商利用苹果的规则漏洞在未经允许的情况下获取用户的隐私信息。而这次,苹果将强制下架那些未经允许跟踪用户隐私的应用程序,在很大程度上杜绝了这种跟踪用户隐私的行为。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对于苹果此举,网友的评论褒贬不一。有人觉得苹果这么做只是为了“甩锅”,调用位置也是因为苹果进行了授权;也有人觉得苹果这么做很对,支持保护隐私。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"摆在桌面的“隐私”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"收疫情影响,今年的 315 晚会变成了“715 晚会”,在 7 月 16 日播出的 315 晚会上,央视曝光了 App的第三方插件擅自获取用户隐私的乱象。据报道,这些插件会在用户不知情的情况下,读取电话号码、短信、通讯录、地理位置等信息,并上传到自己的服务器。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/11\/34\/1144fced1903eb61bef682efb9f3a834.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"图片来源于微博"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/45\/7c\/4554002162775d0b65730578aa81ea7c.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":true,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"图片来源于微博"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"保护好用户隐私本该是理所应当的,可现在却成了苹果在 WWDC 上“炫耀”的一点,数字化的时代与个人数据是息息相关的。你不知道服务商会在什么时候记录你的行为,也不知道它们会把你的数据送往何处并用于何处,最终你可能只会在手机上看到一个推送,然后惊讶地说:“它怎么会知道我想买这个?”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"用户只是被动接受结果的一方,对隐私的不了解和不重视最终促成了习以为常。淘宝记录用户的购物习惯,浏览器获取用户的搜索信息,最终在用户打开淘宝的时候精准地推送了相关的广告。在很多用户可能会觉得无所谓,可以接受用隐私换取便利的这个时代下,苹果强硬的态度反倒成了独树一帜的行为。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对此,你有什么看法呢?你支持苹果强制下架未经允许跟踪用户隐私的应用程序这一行为吗?欢迎在留言区分享你的观点。"}]}]}

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