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上线2年,日调用量7亿次,云开发凭什么?

2020-12-08 17:57:06 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"十年前,谁也没想到,腾讯会在云端如火如荼。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"过去 20 年,腾讯在消费互联网领域打下了坚实的基础,拥有国内最大的 C 端用户平台和最丰富的用户场景。十年前,腾讯正式开始 ToB 之路。2018 年 9 月,腾讯宣布启动新一轮的架构调整和战略升级,在深耕消费互联网的同时,决定要以“C2B”模式进军产业互联网。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"ToC 核心是流量,ToB 核心是云,在腾讯 C2B 架构中,一端靠微信、QQ 等产品连接十几亿用户,一端靠技术服务连接 B 端企业。C 与 B 之间的信息流通效率、速度和宽度,与企业业务价值的实现环环相扣。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"最典型的产品形态,是近两年兴起的小程序,它借助微信迅速扩大规模,实现了微信用户与商家的连接,比如疫情期间的健康码、第七次全国人口普查的“微信人口普查小程序”等。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而云开发站在 C 与 B 的通道上,为小程序开发提供了完整的云端支持。一方面,云开发集成了微信生态能力,包括小程序、小游戏、公众号、微信开放能力、微信支付和微信广告。另一方面,云开发整合了腾讯云的云数据库、云存储、云函数等基础能力,以及丰富的拓展能力,方便开发者快速调用云上能力。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":18}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"不仅仅是一个平台"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发的出现只有 2 年多,但已经有 100 万开发者在使用,平台每日调用量超过 7 亿次。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"因今年疫情,线下多种场景需要登记,且大多是接触式登记,为了避免接触风险。独立开发者陈宇明做了一款「群登记助手」,实现零接触的云登记。这款小程序从 0 到 1 耗时 3 天,9 个月迭代 40 多次,已累计近 600 万次登记,访问量数千万次。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"上海潮办信息科技也是一个不到 10 人的初创团队,用云开发快速开发上线了 2 款小程序,并经过半年的打磨与运营,销售业绩突破 2400 万。在双十一活动当天,销售流水 200 多万,但云开发费用结算仅比平时多花了 10 元钱,10 元钱的服务器费用扛住了一次双十一活动,简直不敢相信,可这就是事实。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发是一个开发平台,包括很多工具和技术。它的诞生与迭代,核心目标还是帮助开发者在微信生态内快速实现创意落地,让开发者的开发体验更爽,让企业快速降本增效。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"但云开发不仅仅是一个平台。对企业来说,一个前端搞定一个团队,一个人可支撑起几千万的销售额的业务,这在有小程序之前是比较难想象的事情,从长远价值来说,整个社会的效率和资源利用率都在提升。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"腾讯云副总裁刘颖在 2020 小程序云开发峰会上提出:“云开发是腾讯 C2B 战略的抓手,我们希望通过云开发实现双向连接,整合能力与资源,共建产业互联网”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"微信小程序开发生态产品负责人黄映焜告诉 InfoQ,云开发自 2018 年 9 月正式上线以来,一直在不停地调研开发者需求,站在开发者角度解决问题。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"“18 年的时候,云开发的团队只有 3 个人,现在都有 40 多人了”。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2018 年,云开发发布的第一年,专注做小程序场景下函数级别的 Severless,这让敏捷开发和快速迭代都更进一步,很多玩法可以快速试错。但对于复杂的业务场景还有一定的局限性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"“以前我们关注前端开发者,云开发可以让他们成为全栈工程师,后来看到函数是有局限的,便将后端开发者也纳入到云开发的版图,享受开发上的便捷”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2019 年,云开发从 0.1 升级到 1.0 的版本,完成了云函数、云数据库、云存储、CDN 以及结合微信云调用核心能力的构建。但还无法支持通用框架,实现 Web 的管理后台非常繁琐。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"“近期发布的产品能力,比如公众号环境共享,几天内就有数千个小程序在尝试。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"2020 年,云开发完成了从单点云开发到全面云开发的升级,扩展了更多场景和能力接入,包括云托管、静态网站托管、公众号环境授权等。无论是中小企业还是大型企业都能快速接入,满足业务需求。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"“与 C 端产品不同,B 端面向开发者的产品,最核心还是要解决开发者实际诉求和开发成本的问题。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"当然,开发者入场时,依然云开发这种模式存在疑虑,但云开发的产品思路是开放的,云开发团队也在基于种种疑虑迭代产品功能。在与开发者一起成长的路上,云开发是认真的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":18}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"开发者的“爽点制造机”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"开发者的爽点很直接:个人开发者比较关注费用问题;有一定规模企业的开发者,关注怎么保证数据安全、稳定性、可扩展性;服务商开发者,关注怎么更快速接入、方便高效的调用。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"如果有一天,开发者可以跟这些问题说再见,他们就爽了。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,多端开发"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发陆续实现小程序、公众号、Web、移动 APP 等全客户端支持,可以“一键开发、多端部署”,并针对不同场景做了优化。针对 Web 场景,提供静态托管服务,开发者可以一键部署静态、动态网站;针对移动端 App,以 Flutter 插件的形式,为开发者提供多项能力,包括登录、云函数、存储、文档型数据库等。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,后端部署"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在自建服务器上,小程序运行的环境和数据库等需要自己配置。云开发提供了较为完整的服务器架构,内建小程序用户鉴权,开发者只需在开发工具内编写、一键上传部署即可运行后端代码。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,系统运维"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"当应用上线后,运维是最大的问题,当海量流量来袭时,如何快速调整系统容量,确保业务的稳步运行。云开发直接接管了运维层面的事务,底层资源由腾讯云提供专业支持。云开发系统架构已拥有多 IDC 部署、多园区部署的容灾架构,同时其也拥有包含系统自动化测试、多维度警告、自动扩容以及腾讯云 + 微信团队的 7*24 小时运维保障体系。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,安全隐患"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在数据安全方面,在云开发模式下,每个用户的环境资源是独立的,也即是私有的,并且云开发提供与自有数据库打通的能力。这样,用户的数据都存在用户自己的云开发环境资源下面,一定层面保障了用户的数据安全。微信客户端和后台之间使用的是全链路票据系统保障整条链路系统安全。而在访问云开发的云资源方面,加入了腾讯云访问管理系统(CAM),其会校验请求的用户是否有权限访问,进而保护数据库、对象存储的安全。此外,云开发会遵守各类安全标准,内外部的安全团队也会进行多种测试和测评。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,低弹性"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在传统的单体开发模式中,开发是基于整个应用、整个站点进行开发,无法单独对某一个特定的功能进行伸缩。而云开发所采用的 Serverless 方案中的运算部分,是交给云函数来进行处理的,你的应用由一个个函数组成的。因此,在弹性伸缩方面,粒度进一步细化,针对特定功能的函数来进行伸缩,弹性效率更高,能够承载的请求量更大。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,高成本"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发在人力成本和云资源成本两方面都有显著优势。在人力成本方面,统一前后端开发,节省应用开发过程中过多的联调环节,不仅减少人力投入,还大大缩短研发周期。过去一年多的实践数据显示,借助云开发,应用开发的人力成本可以降低 50%、云资源使用成本可降低 30%。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"再见了,万行代码"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"今年,云开发正式推出低码平台,通过可拖拽式构建应用,进一步降低开发门槛,没有技术背景的人也可搭建小程序 \/Web 网页,让开发者的群体边界越来越广泛。同时,云开发低码平台提供专业的行业模板,一键上云成了真。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":14}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"如果说,还有一件事,那就是建标准"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"腾讯云云开发产品中心副总监王倩告诉 InfoQ,“目前的国标做了很多的 IaaS 类的标准,但 PaaS 却很少。目前达成的共识是,PaaS 平台就是无服务器计算,通过 SDK 和 API 调用云上的资源、存储、数据库等,需要 Serverless 标准推进或落地的更快。腾讯云作为牵头人,希望通过标准的建立,推动整个云计算领域的未来发展。目前国内云开发的标准是与电子四院、信标委联合启动。对于国际上的标准,也在同 AWS、谷歌云等厂商,做一些联合技术储备。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":"center","origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"size","attrs":{"size":18}},{"type":"strong"}],"text":"搭台子,一起唱戏"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"对于客户来说,云开发的剧本思路是:从可用,到好用,到满足所有企业可以用。因此,今年的重心之一是完善云托管,他可以让小程序不受局限,也可以让非常多存量的小程序方便迁移过来,帮助他们降低成本。此外,正在规划中的两个迭代方向:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"numberedlist","attrs":{"start":1,"normalizeStart":1},"content":[{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":1,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"不局限在语言上(Node.js),探索和实现存量 APP 的迁移路径;"}]}]},{"type":"listitem","attrs":{"listStyle":null},"content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":2,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"持续降低成本,推动生态发展。"}]}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"针对服务商合作伙伴,云开发要同他们一起去赢得客户。例如在产品策略上,除了利润上的返佣外,会重点推动合作型产品,比如通过低代码的平台,给客户提供小程序,先免费后盈利。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发是腾讯 C2B 的技术抓手。回看 C2B 对腾讯 IT 管理思路的改变,也是深刻且彻底的。在团队合作方面,C 端产品思维与 B 端可以很好的融合;在营销模式方面,找到了 ToB 营销与 C 端结合的模式;在产品思路方面,通过结合调研、渠道、天然生态的场景打造,产生了更多创新的可能性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"italic"}],"text":"“我们打造了这样的一个平台之后,内部的很多产品线开始尝试并接入使用云开发,我觉得这个是大家生产思路升级的过程,比如支付、城市服务等很多的一些我们运营的小程序,都非常适合接入的场景。包括我们在考虑创新产品时,都已经开始有了第一反应:能不能用小程序云开发的服务?”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发作为腾讯 C2B 的核心,它的执着在于从不同领域逐步突破,再到领先,追求卓越,把云的能力,技术能力植入产业互联网,让产业互联网无所不在。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"C2B 这两年,只是开始,未完待续。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"horizontalrule"},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"云开发到底有多爽?"},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"Techo 请你来现场!"},{"type":"text","text":"低代码、云托管、微信支付研发优化……这里有云开发的 N 种玩法,人人全栈的时代已经来了。点击 InfoQ 专属报名通道,扫描下方"},{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"strong"}],"text":"二维码"},{"type":"text","text":"或点击【"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/techo.cloud.tencent.com\/2020\/?utm_campaign=MJTG&utm_source=infoQ&utm_medium=XXLLZBanner#\/live?subSeminarId=2011282815676827","title":"xxx","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"链接"}]},{"type":"text","text":"】提前占座吧!"}]},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/d9\/f7\/d9aecff7b62a094a9737ec347203b5f7.jpg","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}}]}

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