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Crush Google's' quantum hegemony '! Chinese quantum computing prototype 'nine chapters' coming out

2020-12-08 10:28:40 osc_ 9na1lmr9

source | Lei feng network

author | Li shuaifei

In the field of quantum computing , China has once again achieved a landmark breakthrough !

12 month 4 Japan , China University of science and technology announced , Pan Jianwei, the University of science and technology of China 、 The research team composed of Lu Chaoyang and others and Shanghai Institute of Microsystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences 、 National Research Center for Parallel Computer Engineering , To build the 76 A photon 100 A prototype of quantum computing “ The nine chapter ”.

This achievement , So that our country has successfully achieved The first milestone in quantum computing research —— The advantages of quantum computing (Quantum Supremacy, It is also known as “ Quantum hegemony ”).

It is worth mentioning that , Related papers have been published in 12 month 3 Published online in the world famous academic journals 《Science》 On .

01

Faster than the current supercomputer , 100 trillion times faster

that , Quantum computing prototype " The nine chapter " How many cattle are there ?

Officially , According to the existing theory , This quantum computing system deals with Gaussian boson sampling (Gaussian Boson Sampling) The speed of , 100 trillion times faster than the world's fastest supercomputer .

According to the 《 intellectual 》 reports ,“ Gaussian boson sampling ” It's a complex sampling calculation , The difficulty of calculation increases exponentially , It's easy to exceed the computing power of today's supercomputers , Suitable for quantum computers to explore solutions . It is “ Bose sampling ” One of the problems , The Bose sampling problem is the first mathematically proven algorithm in the field of quantum information that can be used to demonstrate the acceleration of quantum computing .

Experimental results show that , When solving 5000 When sampling 10000 samples of Gaussian boson ,“ The nine chapter ” Need to be 200 second , And the world's fastest supercomputer “ Nakajima ” Need to be 6 In one hundred million, .

More Than This ," The nine chapter " The performance of the , also Far more than Google Quantum computing, released last year .

Lei feng network ( official account : Lei feng network ) come to know ,2019 year 9 month ,Google Declare quantum superiority , say concretely ,Google At one 53 Bit quantum computers only use 3 branch 20 It takes 10, 000 years on a supercomputer . at that time , This is considered a great breakthrough in the field of quantum computing , Some people in the circle have said that 「 Or the next wave of Technology 」.

However , From the latest data ," The nine chapter " Faster than last year Google released 53 A superconducting bit quantum computing prototype “ plane tree ”(sycamore) fast 100 One hundred million times —— This also shows that , China's quantum computing power has reached the world's leading position .

meanwhile ," The nine chapter " The superiority of quantum computation proved by Gaussian boson sampling does not depend on the number of samples , Overcome Google 53 The quantum superiority in bit random circuit sampling experiment depends on the number of samples .“ The nine chapter ” The space scale of the output quantum state reaches 10 Of 30 Power (“ plane tree ” The space scale of the output quantum state is 10 Of 16 Power , At present, the storage capacity of the world is 10 Of 22 Power ).

overall , This achievement firmly establishes China's position as the first square matrix in the international quantum computing research , It lays a technical foundation for the realization of a large-scale quantum simulator which can solve the problems of great practical value in the future .

Besides , be based on “ The nine chapter ” Quantum computing prototypes of Gaussian boson sampling algorithm in graph theory 、 machine learning 、 Quantum chemistry and other fields have potential applications , It will be an important direction for the follow-up development .

02

" The nine chapter " How is it built ?

At present , The development of quantum computers has become one of the biggest challenges in the forefront of science and technology in the world , It has become the focus of competition among developed countries in Europe and America .

Why quantum computers are so important ?

according to the understanding of , Quantum computers have super fast parallel computing power in principle , It is expected that specific algorithms can be used to solve problems of great social and economic value ( Such as password decoding 、 Big data optimization 、 Material design 、 Drug analysis, etc ) Compared with classic computers, exponential acceleration is achieved .

It should be noted that , Pan Jianwei's team at the University of science and technology of China has been in the international leading level in the field of optical quantum information processing .

for instance , As early as 2017 year , The team has built the world's first computer beyond the early classic (ENIAC) Prototype of quantum computing ,2019 year , The team developed deterministic polarization 、 High purity 、 The highest performance single photon source with high homogeneity and high efficiency in the world , Realized 20 Photon input 60 Bose sampling of mode interference circuits , The output complexity is equivalent to 48 The Hilbert space of quantum bits , Approaching “ The advantages of quantum computing ”.

This time, , The team is highly efficient through independent development 、 Highly holomorphic 、 Quantum light source with extremely high brightness and large-scale expansion capability , At the same time, the phase stability is satisfied 、 Totally connected random matrix 、 The coincidence degree of wave packet is better than 99.5%、 The pass rate is better than 98% Of 100 Pattern interference circuits , Relative optical path 10-9 Within the lock-in accuracy , high efficiency 100 Channel superconducting nanowire single photon detector , Successfully constructed 76 A photon 100 A Gaussian Bose sampling quantum computing prototype with six modes .

The prototype is named “ The nine chapter ”, This name is to commemorate the earliest mathematical monograph in ancient China 《 Nine chapters on arithmetic 》.

however , It should be noted that , among , The development of quantum computer can be divided into three stages , The first of these stages is to develop with 50-100 High precision special quantum computer with qubits , For some high complexity specific problems that supercomputers can't solve, we can solve them efficiently , In computing science “ The advantages of quantum computing ” The milestone of .

at present ," The nine chapter " It's still in the first stage .

And the final goal of the third phase , It's a general purpose programmable quantum computing prototype .

03

《 science 》 The magazine : This is a state-of-the-art experiment

Lei Feng understands ,12 month 3 Japan , The above academic achievements have been made in the United States 《 science 》 Published online on the magazine's website , The title is 《Quantum computational advantage using photons》.

that , What do colleagues say ?

According to the 《 science 》 The reviewer of the magazine commented that , The job is “ A state-of-the-art experiment ”(a state-of-the-art experiment),“ A major achievement ”(a major achievement).

For this achievement , Max, Germany · Director of Planck Institute for Quantum Optics 、 Wolff prize winner 、 Franklin medal winner Ignacio Cirac Express :

On the whole , This is a major breakthrough in the field of quantum technology , It's a big step towards developing quantum devices that have quantum advantages over classical computers . I believe there is a huge technical effort behind this achievement . Professor Pan's team is unique in the world , They have produced many important results including this experiment .

Associate professor at MIT 、 Winner of the president's Award for young scientists in the United States 、 Sloan prize winner Dirk Englund The evaluation said :

This is an epoch-making achievement . This is a remarkable achievement . This is a milestone in the development of these medium-sized quantum computers .

Professor at the University of Vienna 、 Members of the American Physical Society Philip Walther Express :

In their experiments, they got the results that the most powerful classical computer can give for a trillion years , It gives a strong proof of the super power of quantum computers .

Professor, University of Calgary, Canada 、 Director of the Institute of quantum science and Technology Barry Sanders Express :

I think it's an outstanding job , Changed the current pattern ( It’s the game changer). We have been trying to prove that quantum information processing can overcome classical information processing . This experiment is beyond the reach of classical computers .

last year , Google has made a huge achievement , The superiority of quantum computing , But it's controversial …… This experiment ( The experiment of academician pan Jianwei's team ) There is no argument , without doubt , The results of this experiment are far beyond the simulation ability of traditional machines .

Professor at the University of Queensland Tim Ralph Also said :

This is a real “ hero ” experiment , Push the technology of all aspects of the experiment far beyond the previous level . The scale of the device is extraordinary :100 Mode interferometer 、25 Two compressors provide the input quantum state 、 Use 100 A single photon detector to detect , And it can keep high efficiency at the same time , Stability and quantum indiscernibility —— This is necessary to demonstrate the superiority of quantum computing .

Besides , And from the American Academy of Sciences 、 The Royal Swedish Institute of Technology 、 Yale University 、 Experts from research institutions such as Cambridge University , The latest achievements in the field of quantum science are highly appraised .

04

Small junction

At the moment , Quantum computing is also making breakthroughs in scientific research , But from the laboratory to life , There's a long way to go .

Regarding this , Professor Lu Chaoyang, the participant of the above achievements, is accepting 《 intellectual 》 In an interview , It is hoped that this work can stimulate more classical algorithm simulation work , also It is expected that there will be room for improvement in the future , The experiment of quantum superiority is not an easy task , It's a competition between faster classical algorithms and ever improving hardware for quantum computing , But in the end, quantum parallelism will produce computing power beyond the reach of classical computers .

He also said he :

It's like what people know about lasers , From tools in the original lab to applications in many unexpected fields , Quantum computers may follow a similar path . In five years , Technology to control hundreds to tens of thousands of qubits will become a reality , The resulting quantum simulators and specialized quantum computers may become physicists 、 Important tools for chemists and engineers in material applications and drug design .

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