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突发!美国“军事黑名单”新增中芯国际、中海油等企业

2020-12-01 13:49:26 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"北京时间12月1日,路透社报道称:据消息人士,美国政府计划将中芯国际、中国海洋石油总公司(以下简称“中海油”)等公司添加到所谓“军事终端用户”(Military End-User,以下简称“MEU”)名单当中,目的是限制美国供应商与这些企业的贸易往来。"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"美国起草含89家中国企业的“限制新清单”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"如果要了解MEU名单的来龙去脉,需要先回到北京时间11月23日。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"当天,路透社独家报道称,看到了美国政府的一份清单草稿,其中包含了89家“与军队有联系的”中国公司。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"根据当时的报道,与波音和空中客车竞争的中国商用飞机有限公司(COMAC)、中国航空工业集团公司(AVIC)及其10个相关实体也在这份名单上。该报道还表示,该清单包含在一项规则草案中,该草案确定了美国视为“军事最终用户”的中国和俄罗斯公司,这一称号意味着美国供应商必须寻求许可才能向他们出售大量的商业物品,出口限制适用于与计算机软件(如文字处理),科学设备(如数字示波器)和飞机零部件等不同的产品。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"然而根据该规则,此类许可证的申请被拒绝的可能性大于批准的可能性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中国外交部发言人赵立坚就此事发表讲话称:中国坚决反对美国的无端打压。他补充说,美国的所作所为严重违反了市场竞争的原则以及美国声称坚持的国际贸易和投资准则,中国公司在海外(包括美国)开展业务时始终遵守法律,并严格遵守当地法律法规。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"根据当时其他媒体发布的“完整89家MEU名单”,航空、船舶制造等企业占多数,而中芯国际、中海油等公司并不在名单上。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"直到北京时间12月1日,路透社就此事进行了跟进报道。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"路透社称:美国国防部准备增加四家中国公司到MEU上,包括中国建筑技术有限公司、中国国际工程咨询公司、中芯国际集成电路制造有限公司(SMIC)和中国海洋石油总公司(CNOOC)。而从明年下半年开始,美国现任总统唐纳德·特朗普发布的行政命令将生效,并阻止美国投资者购买名单上的公司的股票。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/fb\/b3\/fb6ca5448878746b9d370cfe2fd1e1b3.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中芯国际对此表示,将继续“与美国政府进行建设性和公开的接触”,其产品和服务仅用于民用和商业用途,并在一份声明中表示:“公司与中国军方没有关系,也不为任何军事最终用户或最终用途制造产品。”"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"中海油则在一份声明中表示,已与母公司进行了核对,目前未收到美国有关当局的正式通知。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"外交部发言人华春莹也对这一事件发表评论:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"blockquote","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"我们已经多次就此类问题阐明中方立场。中方坚决反对将中方有关企业政治化的做法,希望美方为中国企业经营提供公平、公正、非歧视的环境,而不是滥用国家安全名义对中国企业实施制裁或采取歧视性限制措施,为中美之间的正常交流合作设置障碍和壁垒。"}]}]},{"type":"heading","attrs":{"align":null,"level":2},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"MEU与实体清单有何不同?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"与之前的“实体清单”不同,这次的“军事终端用户”名单主要限制的是“军事最终用途”与“军事最终用户”相关的出口活动。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"《国际电子商情》在此前的一篇报道中对MEU进行了解读:据了解,MEU清单相关规定主要受《出口管制条例(EAR)》第772.1条限制。文件规定,除了符合美国商务部管制清单(CCL)相关许可证要求外,任何公司向MEU清单中的公司出口、再出口及国内转让EAR第744部分附件2中任何物项均需向美国商务部申请许可证。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"第744部分附录2中所列物项主要包括以下九类:材料、化学品、微生物和毒素;材料加工;电子器件涉及、研制和生产;计算机;通讯与信息安全;传感器与激光;导航与航空电子学;海事;推进系统、航天器及相关设备。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https:\/\/static001.infoq.cn\/resource\/image\/de\/4e\/de6183d8a0743c9242a0369f4e27884e.jpg","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"75%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"该范围内的新增ECCN包括如移动电话、笔记本电脑和“智能”设备在内的消费品,以及某些芯片和集成电路、某些电子测试和处理设备以及电信测试设备。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"所以,就管制措施而言,实体清单受限范围更大。因为MEU清单实体受出口管制措施限制的物项,仅限于第744部分附录2的物项范围。但被列入实体清单的主体,受管措施限制的物项范围通常为所有EAR受控物项。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"另外,还有值得一提的一点是:1999年美国五角大楼就曾编制过一份“由中国军队拥有”的企业名单,可是在2020年美国政府才开始对这份名单“严格对待”。路透社称,海康威视、中国移动、中国电信等公司都在这份名单上。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"参考链接:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.esmchina.com\/news\/7252.html","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.esmchina.com\/news\/7252.html"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/uk-usa-china-military-companies-exclusiv\/exclusive-in-latest-china-jab-u-s-drafts-list-of-89-firms-with-military-ties-idUKKBN28307N","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/uk-usa-china-military-companies-exclusiv\/exclusive-in-latest-china-jab-u-s-drafts-list-of-89-firms-with-military-ties-idUKKBN28307N"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/us-usa-china-military-companies\/china-says-hopes-u-s-wont-erect-barriers-to-cooperation-after-blacklist-report-idUSKBN28A0PP","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/us-usa-china-military-companies\/china-says-hopes-u-s-wont-erect-barriers-to-cooperation-after-blacklist-report-idUSKBN28A0PP"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/us-usa-china-military-companies-exclusiv\/exclusive-trump-to-add-chinas-smic-and-cnooc-to-defense-blacklist-sources-idUSKBN28A036","title":"","type":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"https:\/\/www.reuters.com\/article\/us-usa-china-military-companies-exclusiv\/exclusive-trump-to-add-chinas-smic-and-cnooc-to-defense-blacklist-sources-idUSKBN28A036"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}}]}

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