all the time , I'm engaged in research and development , Some of the methodology in the process of R & D gradually formed some of their own understanding and summary , Whether it's technology 、 framework 、 Team management 、 Project management and R & D support for business . Research and development , One of the people most in touch with in daily work is the product manager . And often think about it , For the position of product manager , What are its core requirements and methodology ？ Yu Jun's product methodology basically answers my question .
Yu Jun is Baidu's first product manager , Leading Baidu 、 Baidu post bar 、 Baidu knows the countless iterations of several well-known products . In the Internet community , Comparable to Ma Huateng 、 Xiao-long zhang 、 Zhou Hongyi and other top product managers .
I read the book off and on for about a week , The main reason is , A lot of elaboration in the book seems easy to understand , But think about it , There are many economic and psychological principles involved , But it is worth pondering .
Students who don't have time to read the full text , You can understand the key points in the following book ：
1、 The user is not a natural person , It's a collection of requirements .
2、 Enterprises use products as media , Value exchange with users .
3、 A good product has three attributes ：（ For users ） Effective use ,（ Enterprises ） There are benefits , sustainable .
4、 transaction （ In exchange for ） Produce value .
5、 User model mainly studies the user behavior and the principle behind it .
6、 The core of transaction model is how to create and distribute benefits .
7、 User value = New experience - Old experience - Replacement cost .
8、 Product managers should be based on the real world , This paper studies the user behavior in macro background and micro scene and the principle behind it .
9、 Product managers should be able to understand user models and transaction models in practice , Design products to facilitate more transactions , To create profitable user value .
The following attempts to make a simple summary of the contents of the book .
What is a product manager
The core of a product manager should be “ product ”. So what exactly is a product . The author first makes a definition in the book , Products are processed by people , A user , Goods or services that can be traded .
What's the point , Mainly users and can be traded . Users need not say , Without users means that the product is not used by anyone , There is no value .
For tradable , Trading here is a general term for , Simple understanding , As long as it can be exchanged, it can be called exchangeable , And trading is not just about buying money in the usual sense , Including the exchange of users' time, it can be called transaction .
Since they are goods or services and can be traded , As a product manager , We need to go through the demand 、 There are three links in production and sales , But we should really implement these three links , Also need a necessary skill ： Coordinate . Therefore, the four biggest job functions of product managers are requirements （ Define product ）、 production 、 Sales and coordination .
demand , The main purpose is to make clear which aspect of the product is to meet the needs of users .
production , As a product manager , The main objects of production are prototypes 、 Interaction and copywriting .
sales , The main approach includes operational activities 、 Marketing 、 User growth 、 And after sales service .
Coordinate , It is mainly the communication and promotion of work and cross departmental coordination .
In later chapters , The author has a more profound exposition of what a product is , From the perspective of enterprises and users , Product is a medium , A medium for value exchange between enterprises and users . Users take their time 、 money 、 promise ( Use the product ) To exchange value with enterprises . The enterprise obtains direct profit or indirect profit , And users get the satisfaction of their needs .
user 、 Enterprises and products
For the user , The definition given by the author is , Users are not natural people with simple understanding , It's a collection of requirements .
For example, the author thinks that , For example, wechat , Maybe its users are 11 Billion . But specific to the functional level, such as the communication function of the user is 11 Billion , The users of wechat payment are 3 Billion , The user of the official account is 5 Billion , Calculated by demand , Wechat users are not in the general statistical sense 11 The hundred million , But under different needs , Its users are superimposed . This is different from what we traditionally think of users .
Users are heterogeneous 、 Situational 、 Plasticity 、 self-interest 、 The five attributes of bounded rationality .
Heterogeneity means that the characteristics of users are very different , It's almost impossible to find two exactly the same .
Situational refers to the user's behavior affected by the situation , No emotion, no user , The same user will have different reactions and behaviors in different situations
Plasticity means that users are variable , Their preferences and cognition will change and evolve with different information stimuli from the outside world , It has plasticity
Self interest refers to the user's pursuit of maximum individual total utility
Limited rationality refers to that although users pursue rationality , But his abilities are limited , Its judgment is often wrong , And often cheated , So only to a limited extent
The author describes these five attributes of users , The core is to tell us , As a product manager , We should not only study the behavior of users, but also explore the principles behind them .
About user value , How to define it ？ The author thinks that , User value has strong subjectivity , In different users 、 Different situations 、 Under different references , User value may be different . So we're looking at users 、 User value and user model , There must be enough sample size , Otherwise, the result may be one-sided .
If you have to measure user value, how to do it ？ The author uses a formula to define how to measure user value
User value = New experience - Old experience - Replacement cost
This is also one of the new product theory systems that the author has summed up .
About our product , As mentioned above , Product is a medium , Media for business value and user exchange value . A good product , It should be effective for users 、 Profitable and sustainable for the business .
The utility here , The essence is the satisfaction degree of users' desire .
About Enterprises , The author thinks that , The essence lies in two points ： First of all , Find opportunities in the market , second , Productivity is higher than the market .
How can enterprises find profit opportunities in the market ？ The author thinks that , Large market profit opportunities , One is due to market environment and institutional changes , Second, it comes from key new technologies , The third is the long-term key factor —— Organization building capacity , Seize the opportunity and ultimately achieve higher productivity than the market , They all rely heavily on organizational building capacity .
Trading and trading model part , The author quoted more theoretical knowledge of economics to elaborate , Because trading itself belongs to the field of economics .
What is a deal ？ The author thinks that , Product is trade , The deal here , The essence is exchange .
Trading creates value .
There is no equivalent exchange in the world , As long as there is no coercion or fraud , It must be both parties' subjective judgment that they will benefit , To close the deal . If one side loses money , He would not be willing to trade . So the core of the deal is , What can we get , What can you give .
Trading model , It's the ability to cause users to do something （ Trade ） And a sustainable mechanism . Its core is “ How to create benefits （ Where does profit come from ）” And “ How to distribute benefits （ Where does profit go ）”.
Why product managers need to focus on deals ？ The author's explanation is , What the product should do in the end , It's the continuous discovery of user value in the market that is higher than the price paid by users , And design the appropriate transaction model to solidify it into a product . Make more deals through products , To create profitable user value .
The author spent a lot of time in the book , It explains several points in economics and what product managers should pay attention to , It mainly includes utility 、 limit 、 cost 、 Supply and demand and relative prices .
utility ： It's the satisfaction of desire , Utility has diversity and infinity .
The diversity of utility includes, but is not limited to, money 、 Time 、 Physical needs 、 Psychological needs 、 belief 、 mood 、 Cognition, etc . The user's desire for the other is infinite .
The satisfaction degree of product utility to user's demand can be roughly divided into four categories ： Bottom line demand （ Not lower than ）, Enough is good （ No need to be higher than ）, The more the better （ Willing to pay more ）, Pleasantly surprised （ Beyond expectation or frame of reference ）. Generally speaking , We need to satisfy the user's “ Bottom line demand ”, hold “ Enough is good ” When the marginal rate of return is the most cost-effective point, it stops , And then put “ The more the better ” To achieve a high input-output ratio , Moderate supply “ Pleasantly surprised ”.
limit ： It's an essential concept to understand a trading model . The marginal concept that needs to be understood in the context of product , Including marginal utility 、 Diminishing marginal utility 、 Marginal cost and marginal profit .
Marginal utility refers to the additional degree of satisfaction that consumers increase with each unit of consumption of a certain product . Margin means extra increment . When the extra increment increases to a certain extent , There will be diminishing marginal utility , That is, no longer feeling the new satisfaction .
Marginal profit is defined as under a given constraint , One more deal , Additional profit added .
And the marginal cost , Under the scale effect , The marginal cost is gradually reduced . But at a certain critical point , On the contrary, the marginal cost may become higher .
cost ： There are many kinds , The book focuses on transaction costs .
Transaction cost refers to the completion of a transaction , Various transaction related costs incurred by both parties before and after the transaction . The reduction of transaction costs , Can make the deal profitable . So product managers need to focus on transaction costs .
Transaction costs come from the following situations ： Information Asymmetry , Information uncertainty 、 Information is incomplete and information has costs .
Product managers focus on market-oriented transaction costs , It is mainly divided into the following three categories ：
(1) Search for （ Commodities and trading partners ） Cost and measurement （ The nature of the trading object and commodity ） cost ;
(2) inquiry （ Price negotiation ） Cost and decision making （ Decision making and contracting ） cost ;
(3) Implementation and support costs （ right 、 default 、 accident 、 Supervision, etc ） cost .
The author gives several examples of cost reduction , Including standardization 、 The popularity of smart phones reduces the transaction costs brought by queuing 、 Chain home real estate and online .
The law of supply and demand ： This is what the public knows , It mainly refers to when other conditions remain unchanged , The fall in prices has brought about a rise in demand .
Last , The author also emphasizes the concept of relative price , Relative price =（ Direct cost + Transaction costs ）/ Utility combination .
Decision making is the choice of behavior , It's about making the final choice from several alternative action plans , Choose what to do or not to do .
The job of a product manager consists of decisions . It's not just product managers , As a manager , In fact, the core is also making various decisions .
Good decisions should be rational decisions , Instead of relying solely on intuition or perceptual judgment . But most people's decisions are irrational , The core is limited access to information 、 Limited information processing 、 Individual differences and other reasons lead to .
The goal of rational decision-making is value maximization , As mentioned earlier , User value = New experience - Old experience - Replacement cost , So in order to maximize value , By maximizing the new experience 、 Minimize the old experience 、 There are three ways to minimize replacement cost .
But usually the value is more difficult to measure , Through the cognition of self cognition 、 Frame of reference 、 cost 、 Uncertain decision making 、 probability 、 Non monetary value 、 Externality 、 Time and other aspects of trade-off judgment .
Common decision-making methods are data decision-making 、 Logical decision 、 Subjective decision making .
We often have some mistakes in decision making , Including attribution bias 、 Anchoring effect 、 Selective attention 、 stereotypes 、 Self-centered 、 Belief bias 、 Errors in decision making, etc .
It's the decision that makes sense , The author quotes from Robbins 《 Organizational behavior 》, Some common methods to promote the landing of decision are given , Include ：
(1) Legitimacy ： Rely on your authority , Or emphasize that your requirements are in line with the organization's rules and regulations . Apply to influence colleagues or subordinates .
(2) Rational persuasion ： Put forward logical arguments and facts to justify a request . Apply to influence the boss 、 Colleagues or subordinates .
(3) Inspiring appeal ： By appealing to the values of a goal 、 demand 、 Hope and desire lead to emotional identification . Apply to influence subordinates .
(4) To discuss ： Enhance support for you by involving others in deciding how to implement your plan . Apply to influence colleagues or subordinates .
(5) In exchange for ： In exchange for compliance with a requirement by offering others certain benefits or benefits . Apply to influence colleagues or subordinates .
(6) Personal appeal ： Use friendship or loyalty to gain the consent of others . Apply to influence colleagues .
(7) Flatter ： Flatter before making a request 、 Praise or kindness . Apply to influence colleagues or subordinates .
(8) bring pressure on ： Use warning 、 Threats and repeated demands . Apply to influence subordinates .
(9) union ： Persuade the target to agree by asking for help or support from others . Apply to influence colleagues .
Selection and growth of product managers
The author summarizes according to the level of talent A/B/C Three categories of personnel ：
A class ： Deep thinking or empathy
B class ： Logical and product oriented
C class ： Not suitable for the career of product manager
C The characteristics of personnel in this category are as follows ：
illogic 、 Empathy is obviously weak 、 Utilitarian heart
Lack of professional love 、 Looking forward to nine to five leisure life 、 Don't like to work overtime
People with high self-awareness
Not thinking 、 Lack of curiosity 、 He thinks that he is logical and rational, but he thinks too much about the surface information of things
More ideas 、 Love thinking but lack of practical spirit , Resist or ignore facts 、 verification 、 feedback 、 iteration
Based on the above classification ,A Class product managers are rare ,C Class people will not be recruited , So most product managers are B Class personnel .
How to train a good product manager ？ The author gives two necessary conditions ： Potential people , A growing product position . If either of these two conditions is not met, you will not be able to cultivate a good product manager . besides , Train a product manager to weigh constraints , And the ability to recognize and employ people , It's also a key tool .
The author gives a value formula of product manager
The value of product manager = Experience level * Platform matching * Intelligence level
I think that , This value formula is also suitable for programmers , You may as well think about it yourself .
For the growth of a product manager , The author thinks that , In the first five years, you should join a small team with product heart , Validate and think from a large number of product iterations . And the growth of product managers five years later , There are professional routes （ Weighing decisions 、 Trading model ）、 Manage routes （ plan 、 organization 、 Coordinate 、 Know and employ people 、 Prioritization ）、 Business route （ High risk 、 High yield ,ABCD Round of funding ）、 Several directions to sea .
The book basically describes the core content that product managers need to pay attention to , Its content involves more knowledge of psychology and economics . The author also mentioned , Product work is a social science with strong practicality , The core of social studies is people 、 Social and economic . Because products belong to the Social Sciences , So it's complex 、 It's a trade-off and difficult decision . If you want to make a final conclusion , Let's finish with two paragraphs of the book describing the responsibilities of product managers ：
Product managers should be based on the real world , This paper studies the user behavior in macro background and micro scene and the principle behind it .
Product managers should be able to understand user models and transaction models in practice , Design products to facilitate more transactions , To create profitable user value .
Last , I organized a brain map , For reference .
It is highly recommended that you take the time to read the original book , Those who need to download brain maps or e-books can send me private messages , Get download link .
This article is created by programmer beige , Welcome to your attention , Take you together to grow knowledge ！