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谈谈敏捷开发概念和迭代开发方案

2020-11-10 13:57:15 InfoQ

{"type":"doc","content":[{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"自敏捷开发这一概率进入我们的视野,仅在短短几年内,软件开发领域便进入了高速开发的时代。似乎从业者们都在谈快速,谈迭代,不管是否感受过敏捷开发的益处,先跟风吹起来,只要凑近这一新技术,就像走在了行业的前列。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"领域中有部分人采用敏捷开发做项目,其每个迭代都能看到不断完善的产品,相关人员表示非常有成就感,客户的满意度也很高;另一部分开发者则用迭代开发,完全按照客户需求来开发软件,按照优先级排到迭代周期即可。有时就在思考,敏捷开发好像也分迭代周期的,这两者会不会就是一回事?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"迭代开发是什么?迭代开发流程:"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在迭代开发中,整个工作被划分为一系列袖珍的、固定时间的小项目,这叫系列迭代,即是迭代开发。每一次迭代都包括了定义、需求分析、设计、实现与测试。而敏捷开发是以用户的需求为核心,采用迭代、循序渐进的方式开发软件。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"前者是软件的开发周期模型,是一种开发过程;而后者是多种软件开发项目管理方法的集合,这是两者最根本的区别。与迭代开发对应是瀑布模型、螺旋模型,而与敏捷开发对应的是Scrum,XP(极限编程),Crystal(水晶编程),所以二者不可混为一谈,但其中又有一定的联系。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"在敏捷开发的定义中已说明,其采用了迭代的方法。那敏捷开发为什么要采用迭代开发?"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"敏捷开发的核心原则是关注项目中的变化。迭代式开发正适用于需求不明确的项目,如果开发过程中突然变化需求,所带来的影响要比其他模型小。而现在的很多项目中,需求在开发过程中变化的情况很常见,所以迭代式开发就显得更有优势,这正符合敏捷开发的关注变化的特性。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"迭代开发不要求把每个阶段都做到完美,明知还有不足之处却不完善,而是追求用最短的时间搭建出主要功能,用最低成本先完成一个“主体半成品”直至提交,然后再通过客户或用户的反馈信息,在这个“主体半成品”上逐步进行完善,这正符合敏捷开发的递增变化。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"敏捷开发是总体概念,而迭代式开发是实践敏捷开发概念的一个手段。敏捷开发除迭代式开发外,还包含了其他许多管理与工程技术实践,如演进式架构设计、敏捷建模、重构、自动回归测试(ART)。综上,敏捷开发与迭代开发是整体与局部的关系,前者是家族,而后者是家族成员。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"敏捷开发概念发展史"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"image","attrs":{"src":"https://static001.geekbang.org/infoq/10/103e5af3249f6c4d2474d5b393ed397e.png","alt":null,"title":"","style":[{"key":"width","value":"100%"},{"key":"bordertype","value":"none"}],"href":"","fromPaste":false,"pastePass":false}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"虽然敏捷和迭代不一样,但是它们也是分不开的,二者的有机结合,既能保证产品质量又可保持在项目持续改进过程中的优势。吸取精华,破其糟粕,只有这样,项目才会趋于完美。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"所以敏捷和迭代的方式一定是完美的?这还真不一定,但不可否认的是敏捷开发相对于传统开发是有很大优势的。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"近些年来,由于一些特定的需求,越来越多的软件团队开始采用敏捷开发模式,但是在开发过程中却对其核心思想理解不足,有些敏捷开发团队甚至没有管理者,仅设一名Scrum Master向产品经理汇报,职责划分也很暧昧。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"除了软件公司,在很多常规企业中,敏捷开发已经成为一种无负责人的开发流程。所谓的产品经理与销售、CEO随意加功能、改需求,然后交给开发团队去“敏捷”开发。在开发过程中,需求调研、设计、反馈、代码评审、测试、全不需要。说好听点这叫敏捷开发,说不好听点,这就是技术大杂烩,能做到哪一步算哪一步,完全忽略了敏捷开发的实质。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"而实际上,敏捷开发并不是这样的,迭代的核心在于软件的超前规划。如果没有专业规划者的全程指导,造出来的软件系统必不合格 -- 时间超限、预算超支、充斥着各种不科学的奇思妙想、根本不管需求是否合乎逻辑。所以,无论用什么开发思维,不管是哪种开发手段,都要制定合理科学的开发方案,这样才可事半功倍。"}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":"更多敏捷开发详情参阅:"},{"type":"link","attrs":{"href":"https://www.learun.cn","title":null},"content":[{"type":"text","marks":[{"type":"underline"}],"text":"https://www.learun.cn"}]}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null},"content":[{"type":"text","text":" "}]},{"type":"paragraph","attrs":{"indent":0,"number":0,"align":null,"origin":null}}]}

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