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BCI pioneer bombards musk: "he's walking a dead end. I don't agree with a word he says."

2020-11-09 16:06:45 Xu Jiu

Technical editor : Xu Jiuyi published from : Think no editorial department

“ I am the creator of brain computer interface technology , so to speak , Like science fiction movies and novels , Mind control is fully realized through brain computer interface , It's impossible , There is no scientific basis for this . I'm sorry , Musk made such a wrong statement . This is not conducive to the development of Science in our field .”

Miguel Nicolelis( Miguel · Nicolelis ) Said in a recent interview , Musk's fabulous claims ,“ I don't agree with a word .”

One 、Miguel Nicolelis Who is it? ?

Miguel Nicolelis

Miguel Nicolelis( Miguel · Nicolelis ), Professor of neurobiology, Duke University School of medicine 、 Academician of the French Academy of Sciences 、 Academician of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences 、 Bestsellers 《 Brain machine traversal 》 author 、2014 Brazil World Cup “ Mechanical armor ” inventor .

He was once published by the American popular science magazine 《 Scientific American 》 The world's most influential 20 One of the scientists , Its research was 《 MIT technology review 》 named 10 One of the most groundbreaking technological innovations .

As a pioneer in brain computer interface , His wish is to help human beings digitize “ Immortality ”, Leading human beings to a new era of human computer interaction .

Professor Miguel is “ Go back to the walking plan ”(Walk again project) Originator . As an international union of scientists and engineers , The project is dedicated to the development of exoskeleton devices , Help patients with severe paraplegia regain mobility . As a result of its research , Professor Miguel first proposed and expounded “ Animal and human subjects can use their EEG activity directly through the BCI (Brain-machine interfaces, BMI) Control the neural prosthesis device ” Point of view .

2014 year , He applied his research to the opening ceremony of the world cup in Brazil —— A teenager with lower body paralysis uses his brain to control the movement of mechanical bones , Kick off smoothly .

In the past 25 Mid year , Professor Miguel created and perfected a new method of neuroelectrophysiology , It's now known as chronic 、 Multipoint 、 Multi electrode recording (Chronic, multi-site, multi-electrode recordings) Law . In a variety of animals and in human patients , In this way , Professor Miguel built a new 、 A field of research aimed at monitoring the synchronous activity and association of a large number of single neurons in the whole brain .

Through Professor Miguel's efforts , He also discovered a number of important physiological principles that govern mammalian brain circuits . Because it can be used as severe paraplegia 、 Potential new treatments for patients with Parkinson's disease and epilepsy , It created BMI Research is becoming very influential . Now , Europe and the United States 、 A large number of Neuroscience Laboratories in Asia and Latin America are combining Professor Miguel's experimental paradigm to study the neuronal systems of various mammals .

Whether from the level of scientific theory or scientific research practice , Professor Miguel's research has been on Computer Science 、 The fundamental and applied research in the fields of artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering has made a profound impact .

Two 、 Brain computer interface is still in place “ baby ” Stage , Musk's dead end ?

 Brain-machine interface

The BCI was driven by musk , It has become one of the hottest topics in science and technology . Last ten years , In addition to government and academia , The big Internet 、 Business machine companies and start-ups are starting to move , Developing brain chips .

In terms of form , Brain computer interface is mainly divided into two categories: invasive and non-invasive . These two ways have their advantages and disadvantages , Intrusive is more accurate , You can code more complex commands , Like three-dimensional motion , But surgical trauma is inevitable ; The noninvasive electrode is a convenient scalp patch , There's no need for craniotomy to implant , However, the range and accuracy of EEG signals detected are limited .

This year, 8 month , Musk has come up with a chip the size of a coin that can be implanted into the brain , Musk said in the presentation that , This technology can realize “ Mind control 、 Consciousness lives forever ” etc. .

Miguel thinks that ,“ Intrusive solutions only apply to patients who have no choice , Most people should still choose non-invasive .” And the goal of developing BCI is not “ Mind control , Consciousness lives forever ”, It's better to communicate and interact with the brain , Can accept and interpret signals from the brain , So he thought , Musk's thinking is a dead end ,

At the same time, Miguel says , Brain computer interface technology is still a baby outside medicine ,“ If brain computer interface technology is far from the mature application of science fiction, there are 1000 Step , Maybe it's just gone now 250 Step .


3、 ... and 、 The most beautiful fantasy and the deepest worry

 Brain-machine interface - rhesus

In a sharing this month , Professor Miguel said , The first person who learned to control the BCI was a rhesus monkey .

In the experiments , The team first taught rhesus monkeys the simplest computer games : By controlling a joystick , Let the computer cursor pass through a circle specified on the screen . Every time you succeed , The monkey gets a drop of its favorite orange juice as a reward . meanwhile , The team recorded the activity of neurons in the monkey's brain during this behavior .

After continuous training , The accuracy of the monkey playing the cursor game has reached 99%. here , The team takes the joystick , It was found that the activity of moving the cursor in the monkey's brain was still going on . The team also recorded this brain activity , And it is quickly transformed into the command of the manipulator movement . such , Rhesus monkeys do not move their bodies and arms , The robot arm is manipulated by the mind , Continue the cursor game .“ That's the first time we've discovered that the brain can be freed from the body .”

Professor Miguel is deeply moved by this :“ Sometimes basic science can lead you to , Get to places you've never imagined , Bring you unexpected discoveries .”

People always have the best fantasy and deepest worry about technology , In especial AI And brain computer interface technologies that can evolve on their own or help humans evolve .

But as Professor Miguel said , The development of science is an irreversible road , If you want to be led by technology to a place you never imagined , You need more people involved , Let research get out of the lab , So that everyone can talk about science 、 Embrace Science .

 Technology - fantasy

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