2. Introduction to computer hardware
2020-11-09 01:10:09 【Hakou】
One thing about computers is the hardware , Have you ever assembled your own computer ？ Or do you know the hardware of a computer ？ This article is mainly about the main hardware of the computer , It is suitable for students of Xiaobai level to read .
computer hardware , According to the user dimension , Can be divided into Server level and individual consumers （PC） Level . Single core performance of server level computers is not necessarily better than that of personal computers （PC） strong , In the present （2020） At this stage, a lot of servers CPU There is no personal computer in the main frequency CPU The main frequency is high , The server CPU The main frequency of is usually in 3 GHz about , Personal computer CPU A lot of the main frequencies are now 4.5 GHz Above , Some advanced CPU Can surpass 5 GHz.GHz namely 1 000 000 000 Hz, It's about how many operations can be performed per second , therefore 5 GHz It stands for this CPU It can be executed every second 50 Hundred million operations .
that Why is the server CPU The main frequency of a single core is better than that of a person PC Of CPU The main frequency should be low ？ One of the main reasons is that Power consumption and heat dissipation . Server's CPU It's not just one core , It's usually 100 Go up . When so many CPU At the same time, the power consumption will be quite large , And the heat generated is even more terrifying . This is why the data center computer room should be equipped with a good cooling system , Like air conditioning , A better computer room can also use liquid cooling （ Soak the whole computer in a special liquid ）.
Okay , There are so many digressions , Return to the right topic . What does computer hardware include ？
- CPU.RMB Big head .
- The graphics card .RMB Big head .
- Memory .RMB Big head .
- a main board .
- The storage device .RMB Big head .
- Monitor . It's usually PC The level will consider this component , The server level doesn't have to think about this .
- Keyboard and mouse Kit . It's usually PC The level will consider this component , The server level doesn't have to think about this .
- The case .
- Power Supply .
CPU At present, commercial mainstream brands are divided into two camps ：Intel 、AMD. Last ten years AMD Has been Intel To hang up , But as the AMD Zen The emergence of the series , This situation has been reversed ,AMD Zen The cost performance of the series can't help but shout out ：AMD Yes(AMD It's delicious ). If the individual budget is adequate , You can buy without brains Intel Of CPU, If you pursue cost performance ,AMD Zen Series is currently recommended .
Intel Of CPU It is divided into i3/i5/i7/i9/xeon Series etc. , The server domain uses more is xeon series , Personal computers are used more often i series . The price is relatively high CPU It's about the same as the price CPU It could be a twin brother , They could be made from the same piece of silicon , And then because of the high price CPU There's less noise on it, so it's better , Basically, there's no need to ban any core , And the price is average CPU Maybe there's a lot of noise , Several of them will be banned during the test die, For example, it was originally designed to 8 nucleus , Because of which 4 individual die There's a lot of noise , It's not good quality. It needs to be banned 4 A nuclear , So the last time we leave the factory is 4 nucleus CPU, from i7 CPU Turned into i5 CPU.
To see CPU There's a place to see ：https://www.mydrivers.com/zhuanti/tianti/cpu/index.html
Intel At home General purchase i3/i5 That's enough 了 , Game enthusiasts can buy i7/i9, Video and design can refer to i7/i9.AMD At home General purchase R3/R5 Series is enough 了 , Enthusiasts can buy R7/R9.
Be careful ！Intel CPU The model comes with F It has no kernel （ Such as i5-9400F）, You need to buy a video card , Otherwise your monitor doesn't have images . and AMD CPU There's only... In the model G It's the series that has the core （ Such as R3-3200G）, Other models have no nuclear display .
CPU Power consumption of （TPW） It's also a consideration , The higher the power consumption, the higher the heat output . A lot of advanced CPU Need to buy a better radiator , For example, a water-cooled radiator . The radiator is divided into air cooling type and water cooling type , Air cooled is cheaper , The cooling capacity is OK , The price of water-cooled type is slightly higher , Good heat dissipation .
2. The graphics card
Video card is a real money burning thing . It works a lot , It can improve the flow of the game screen 、AI model training 、 Image rendering, etc . It can be said that friends in the design circle love and hate this component , Good graphics than CPU It's much more expensive .
At present, there are two mainstream commercial brands of video card ：nvidia and AMD. you 're right ,AMD Also engaged in video card ！ Of course, in this field, it's also nvidia To hang up , So you can buy without brains nvidia The graphics card . And CPU similar , The graphics card also has a performance ladder chart that you can query ：https://www.mydrivers.com/zhuanti/tianti/gpu/
When choosing a video card, look at your budget according to the ladder diagram . In a home setting , The video card is controlled in 1000 Within ; There is no upper limit to games and design scenarios , It mainly depends on how many graphics cards the motherboard can support and the price of a single graphics card , After all, the price of advanced graphics card is quite expensive .nvidia There are a lot of series in the video card, there will be a Titan edition （ Such as 2080Ti）, This is an enhanced version , It means it's the best in this model . Ordinary gamers don't really recommend it Titan edition , If you buy this product, it will be over performance . About this 2080 Ti Recently there was a “49 Entered the national army in “ What happened ：3070 After coming out, the performance is similar to 2080 Ti Almost the same , And the price difference is huge , Not waiting 30xx Series and bought 20xx The students in the series really want to cry without tears .
The main specifications of the graphics card are shown in its Memory and frequency , Both indicators are that the bigger the better .
There are many memory brands , I compare Recommend the old brand Kingston . Installation status , Memory has 16G Will be enough . Try to choose two memory modules , such as 16G Just buy two memory 8G Memory module of , This can take advantage of dual channels , Faster .
Memory also has a frequency parameter , It represents the refresh rate per second , The bigger the better , Of course, the higher the price . Don't blindly pursue this value , Also depends on whether your motherboard supports . Generally speaking 2666 Enough is enough , Gamers can refer to 3200/3600 Or higher .
Now a lot of people will buy light bars , It's just that it glows when it's running , There's a lantern type 、 Neon, etc . I like it , I'm more rustic , I'd like to buy something without a light . Now? Intel A kind of Nonvolatile memory Optane PMem, In other words, the data in it will not be lost in case of power failure , Currently, it is mainly used in server scenarios , It's quite expensive , I was stunned at the price , All the graphics cards in front of it are brothers .
4. a main board
The major categories of motherboards are also It is divided into Intel and AMD series , Because it's different CPU The pins on the corresponding motherboard are different , So please pay attention to the motherboard support when purchasing CPU type . Motherboard brand is generally recommended by Gigabyte 、 ASUS 、 MICROSTAR . Now the main board function is more and more , Integrated network card 、 Sound card 、wifi etc. . The motherboard has nothing to say , It mainly depends on the function and price it provides .
The size of the motherboard is generally ATX、M-ATX、ITX, The size decreases in turn , Of course, there are some larger or smaller motherboards , This is mainly about the mainstream PC motherboard . Server motherboard and personal PC The motherboard of the machine is totally different , It can plug in a lot of memory , And there are many CPU Slot position , Please refer to the figure below ：
5. The storage device
Storage devices are mainly disks . There are two main types of disks ：HDD（ Normal disk ）、SSD（ Solid state disk ）.HDD Needless to say , It's the kind of thick disk that we often see , There's a motor and a magnetic disk in it , During operation, the motor will drive the magnetic disc inside to rotate at high speed . such HDD Limited by its physical characteristics, its data transmission rate is generally 200MB/s about , Average performance , But the capacity can be bigger , A single dish can have 10 many TB.
SSD According to different interfaces, it can be divided into M.2 SSD / SATA SSD / NVMe SSD, Performance improves from left to right . Its price is relatively high , Data transmission is faster , especially NVMe SSD. You can use this type of disk as a system disk , This has a lot of help to improve the response speed of the system .
SSD Samsung brand is recommended for storage devices .
There are too many screens to choose from , Design Majors usually choose Dell 、 samsung 、 Apple , There are so many other options , such as LG、 AOC （AOC） etc. , Even now Xiaomi is making monitors , Of course, you know about millet . For the purchase of monitors, it is also based on personal budget , You can choose a better screen if you have more budget . I think the most important thing for the general public to choose and buy is not to flash the screen , For example, color accuracy is not very important to the public , And I think generally speaking, the color accuracy of big brand monitors should not be too bad .
7. Key mouse
Keyboard and mouse this peripheral is more exquisite . Generally, the membrane keyboard is used , This keyboard is cheaper , You can buy it for dozens of yuan , It's still a better one , For example, shuangfeiyan , Logitech, etc . There's also a mechanical keyboard , This is more expensive , It feels better , It's also more durable , Properly maintained, it can even be used as a family heirloom . There are many brands , Well known are filco（ This is the brand I'm using , recommend ）、cherry、HHKB etc. .
Mouse suggest to buy ergonomic mouse , This kind of mouse is more comfortable to hold , Can greatly reduce the pressure on the hand , Reduce the risk of mouse hands . Brand recommendation has Logitech 、 Thunder snake, etc .
8. The case
The case depends on everyone's taste . The chassis needs to be purchased according to the motherboard , Because some small chassis can't install the big motherboard , So in the purchase of time to see whether the motherboard size is appropriate .
Chassis brand recommendation ： Kaneda 、 Wait first .
9. Power Supply
Power is more important , Be sure to estimate the power range of all components , And then leave a little space in this range , Because the calibration power of the power supply is often not so much , For example, the rated power of the power supply is calibrated as 300W, But it may only supply 250W. If the power supply is not enough , The damage to the motherboard is relatively large . Imagine , electric The source is similar to the human heart , If the heart's ability to transfuse blood is insufficient , People are more likely to get tired or have other problems .
Power brand recommendation ： Hangjia 、 Antinik et al .
Okay , So much about computer hardware , also I don't know if the related hardware brands will give me some advertising expenses .
ps. Welcome to the official account " Hackle ".
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