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When to write disk IO after one byte of write file

2020-11-08 16:12:41 Zhang Yanfei Allen

In the foreword 《read How much disk does a byte of file actually take place on IO?》 After you've written , I wanted to be lazy , Just read to let you know Linux IO Each module of the stack is OK . But many students said that they asked me to write another article about writing operation . Since many people have this need , I'll write it down .

Linux The kernel is really complicated , The number of lines of source code has been changed from 1.0 Tens of thousands of lines in the version , By now, it's a giant of thousands of lines . If you go straight in , It's easy to get lost in all kinds of dazzling calls , I can't drill out any more . I'd like to share with you a way I'm thinking about the kernel . Generally, I think about a problem that I really want to make clear . No matter how you jump around in the code , Always remember your problems , The irrelevant parts should be scattered as little as possible , Just figure out your problem .

Now what I want to understand is , In the most common way , Don't drive O_DIRECT、 Don't drive O_SYNC( There are many ways to write files , Yes sync Pattern 、direct Pattern 、mmap Memory mapping mode ),write How is it written .c The code example of is as follows :

#include <fcntl.h>
int main()
{
    char c = 'a';
    int out;

    out = open("out.txt", O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC);
    write(out,&c,1);
    ...
}

Further refine my question , After we write a byte to the open question

  • write How functions are executed in the kernel ?
  • When can the data really be written to the disk ?

In the course of our discussion, it is inevitable to refer to the kernel code , The kernel version I'm using is 3.10.1. If necessary , You can download it here .https://mirrors.edge.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v3.x/.

write Function implementation analysis

I spent a lot of time tracking write writes ext4 File system calls and returns , I sort out an interaction diagram . Of course, to highlight the point , I abandoned a lot of details , such as DIRECT IO、ext4 There's nothing in the log , Only a few calls that I think are critical are extracted .

file

In the flow chart above , Where did all the writing end up ? At the back __block_commit_write in , It's just make dirty. Then most of the time your function call returns ( Later on balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited). The data is still in memory PageCache in , It's not really written to the hard disk .

Why do we have to do this , Don't write to the hard disk directly ? The reason is hard disk, especially mechanical hard disk , The performance is that it's too slow . A server level turntable , The worst-case random access average latency is at the millisecond level , The conversion IOPS Only 100 Not much 200. imagine , If every user in your back-end interface needs a random disk to access IO, No matter how good your server is , Per second 200 Of qps It's going to blow up your hard drive , Believe as a million / Ten million / More than 100 million users provide interface for you , This is something you can't stand .

Linux There are also side effects , If the next server power down , I lost everything in my memory . therefore Linux There's another one “ Patch ”- Delayed writing , Help us alleviate this problem . Pay attention to , I'm talking about relief , It's not completely solved .

Besides, under the balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited, Although most of the time , It's all written directly into Page Cache It's back in . But in one case , The user process must wait for the write to complete before it can return , That's right. balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited If your judgment goes beyond the limit . This function determines whether the current dirty page has exceeded the dirty page upper limit dirty_bytes、dirty_ratio, You have to wait if you exceed it . Only one of these two parameters will take effect , in addition 1 Yes 0. take dirty_ratio Come on , If the setting is 30, It means that if the proportion of dirty pages exceeds that of memory 30%, be write Function calls must wait for the write to complete before returning . It can be under your machine /proc/sys/vm/ Directory to view these two configurations .

# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_bytes
0
# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_ratio
30

Kernel delay write

When does the kernel actually write data to the hard disk ? In order to get a quick picture of the whole picture , The way I came up with was to use systemtap Tools , Find the kernel and write IO A key function in the process , And then you type the function call stack in it . After looking up the data for a long time , I decided to use it. do_writepages This function .

#!/usr/bin/stap
probe kernel.function("do_writepages")
{
    printf("--------------------------------------------------------\n"); 
    print_backtrace(); 
    printf("--------------------------------------------------------\n"); 
}

systemtab After tracking , The printed information is as follows :

 0xffffffff8118efe0 : do_writepages+0x0/0x40 [kernel]
 0xffffffff8122d7d0 : __writeback_single_inode+0x40/0x220 [kernel]
 0xffffffff8122e414 : writeback_sb_inodes+0x1c4/0x490 [kernel]
 0xffffffff8122e77f : __writeback_inodes_wb+0x9f/0xd0 [kernel]
 0xffffffff8122efb3 : wb_writeback+0x263/0x2f0 [kernel]
 0xffffffff8122f35c : bdi_writeback_workfn+0x1cc/0x460 [kernel]
 0xffffffff810a881a : process_one_work+0x17a/0x440 [kernel]
 0xffffffff810a94e6 : worker_thread+0x126/0x3c0 [kernel]
 0xffffffff810b098f : kthread+0xcf/0xe0 [kernel]
 0xffffffff816b4f18 : ret_from_fork+0x58/0x90 [kernel]

From the output above, we can see that , The real file writing process is performed by worker From the kernel thread ( It has nothing to do with our own app process , At this point, our application's write The function call returned long ago ). This worker Thread writebacks are executed periodically , Its cycle depends on the kernel parameters dirty_writeback_centisecs Set up , According to the parameter name, you can probably see that , Its unit is one hundredth of a second .

# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_writeback_centisecs
500

I see that my configuration is 500, That is, every 5 The second will do it periodically . Looking back on our questions , When was our most concerned question written in , It's just a lot of divergence around this idea . So we keep tracking along the call stack , Jump , Finally found the following code . In the following code we see , If it is for_background Pattern , And over_bground_thresh Judge success , It will start to write back .

static long wb_writeback(struct bdi_writeback *wb,
                         struct wb_writeback_work *work)
{
	work->older_than_this = &oldest_jif;
    ...
    if (work->for_background && !over_bground_thresh(wb->bdi))
        break;
	...

    if (work->for_kupdate) {
        oldest_jif = jiffies -
                msecs_to_jiffies(dirty_expire_interval * 10);
    } else ...
}
static long wb_check_background_flush(struct bdi_writeback *wb)
{
    if (over_bground_thresh(wb->bdi)) {
   		...
        return wb_writeback(wb, &work);
    }
}

that over_bground_thresh What does the function judge ? In fact, it is to judge whether the current dirty page exceeds the kernel parameters dirty_background_ratio or dirty_background_bytes Configuration of , If you don't exceed it, you won't write it ( Code is located fs/fs-writeback.c:1440, Limited to space, I will not post ). Only one of these two parameters will actually work , among dirty_background_ratio The configuration is proportional 、dirty_background_bytes The configuration is bytes .

The two parameters on my machine are configured as follows , Indicates that the proportion of dirty pages exceeds 10% I started writing back .

# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_bytes
0
# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_background_ratio
10

So what if the dirty pages don't exceed this percentage all the time , Don't write it ? No, it isn't . Above wb_writeback Function, we see , If it is for_kupdate Pattern , An expiration mark will be recorded to work->older_than_this, In the following code, the page that meets this condition is also written back .dirty_expire_interval Where does this variable come from ? stay kernel/sysctl.c in , We found clues . Oh , It turns out that it came from /proc/sys/vm/dirty_expire_centisecs This configuration .

1158         {
1159                 .procname       = "dirty_expire_centisecs",
1160                 .data           = &dirty_expire_interval,
1161                 .maxlen         = sizeof(dirty_expire_interval),
1162                 .mode           = 0644,
1163                 .proc_handler   = proc_dointvec_minmax,
1164                 .extra1         = &zero,
1165         },

It's on my machine , Its value is 3000. The unit is one hundredth of a second , So the dirty pages are over 30 Seconds will be thought by the kernel thread to write back to disk .

# cat /proc/sys/vm/dirty_expire_centisecs
3000

Conclusion

We demo Writing in code , In fact, most cases are written to PageCache It's back to , It's not really written to the disk . Our data will be actually initiated to write to disk at the following three times IO request :

  • Case one , If write When the system is called , If you find that PageCache There are too many dirty pages , More than the dirty_ratio or dirty_bytes,write You have to wait .
  • The second case ,write writes PageCache It's back .worker When kernel threads run asynchronously , Judge the proportion of dirty pages again , If you exceed dirty_background_ratio or dirty_background_bytes, Also initiate a write back request .
  • The third case , It's the same time write The call has returned .worker When kernel threads run asynchronously , Although the system visceral page has not exceeded dirty_background_ratio or dirty_background_bytes, But dirty pages stay in memory longer than dirty_expire_centisecs 了 , I can also initiate and write .

If you are not satisfied with the above configuration , You can modify it yourself /etc/sysctl.conf To adjust , Don't forget to carry out the modification sysctl -p.

Finally, we should realize that , This set of write pagecache+ The first goal of the write back mechanism is performance , It's not a guarantee that we won't lose the data we've written . If the power goes off at this time , Dirty pages have not been dirty for more than dirty_expire_centisecs I really lost it . If you're doing a very important business with money , You have to make sure that the drop is complete before you can return , Then you may need to consider using fsync.


file


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