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10 common software architecture patterns

2020-11-08 13:02:05 osc_0vd38ylb

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Want to know how to design a large enterprise class system ? Before starting major code development , We have to choose the right Architecture , It will give us the functionality and quality attributes we need . therefore , Before we apply them to our designs , You should first understand the different architectures .

-      What is architecture pattern      -

According to Wikipedia ,

Architecture patterns are generic solutions to common problems in software architecture in a given context 、 Reusable solutions . Architecture pattern is similar to software design pattern , But more broadly .

In this paper , I will briefly introduce the following 10 Common architecture patterns , And its use 、 Advantages and disadvantages .

-      Hierarchical mode      -

This pattern can be used to build programs that can be decomposed into subtask groups , Each of them is at a specific level of abstraction . Every time we serve higher levels .
The most common in general information systems 4 The layers are divided as follows :

  • Presentation layer  The presentation layer ( That is to say UI layer )

  • Application layer  application layer ( That is the service layer )

  • Business logic layer  Business logic layer ( It's the domain level )

  • Data access layer  Data access layer ( Data persistence layer )

application

  • General desktop applications

  • Electronic Commerce Web Applications

-      client - Server mode      -

The model consists of two parts : One server and multiple clients , The server provides services to multiple clients . The client makes a request to the server , The server provides services to these clients , after , The server continues to listen for requests from clients .

application

  • Online applications , E-mail 、 File sharing and banking

-      A master-slave mode      -

The model is also divided into two parts : Master module and slave module . The master module distributes work between the same slave modules , And calculate the final result according to the structure returned from the module .

application

  • In database replication , The master database is considered the authoritative data source , And keep it in sync with the database

  • Peripheral devices connected to the computer system bus ( Master and slave drives )

-      Pipeline filter mode      -

This pattern can be used to build systems that generate and process data streams . Each processing step is contained in a filter component , Data to be processed is piped . These pipes can be used to buffer or synchronize .

application

  • compiler . Lexical analysis is performed using different filters in turn 、 analysis 、 Syntax analysis and code generation

  • Workflow in bioinformatics

-     Broker Pattern      -

This pattern uses decoupled components to build distributed systems , These components can interact through remote service calls . The agent component is responsible for coordinating communication between components .
Servers put their functions ( Services and features, etc ) Publish to agent , Client requests service from agent , The agent then forwards the client request to the appropriate service according to its registry .

application

  • Message broker software , Such as  Apache ActiveMQ, Apache Kafka, RabbitMQ  and  JBoss Messaging.

-     P2P Pattern      -

In this mode , Each individual component is called a peer ( Or peer ,peer). A peer can act as a client ( Request services from other peers ), It can also act as a server ( Providing services to other peers ). The same peer may be both a client , It's the server again , And it can dynamically change its role .

application

  • File sharing network , Such as Gnutella  and  G2

  • Multimedia protocol , Such as P2PTV  and  PDTP

  • Cryptocurrency based products , Such as bitcoin and blockchain

-      Things bus mode      -

This pattern mainly deals with components , Yes 4 An important component : Event source 、 Event Listener 、 Channel and event bus . The event source sends the message to a specific channel on the event bus , Listeners subscribe to specific channels . When the message is sent to the channel , Listeners that subscribe to the channel receive notification of the message .

application

  • Android Development

  • Notification services

-     MVC Pattern      -

This pattern divides the interactive application into three parts ,

  1. Model —— Including core functions and data

  2. View —— Show information to users ( You can define multiple views )

  3. controller —— Handle user input

This is done to separate the internal representation of the data from the form of user input and presentation , This decouples the components , At the same time, it can also make efficient code reuse .

application

  • Internet application architecture of mainstream programming languages

  • Network framework , Such as Django  and  Rails.

-      Blackboard mode      -

This pattern is useful for problems where there is no definitive solution , The blackboard model consists of three parts :

  • blackboard —— A structured global memory , Contains objects in the solution domain

  • Knowledge source —— Professional module with its own meaning

  • Control components —— choice 、 Configuration and execution modules

All components have access to the blackboard , Components may generate new data objects to be added to the blackboard , Components look for specific types of data on the blackboard , And matching these data sources with existing patterns .

application

  • speech recognition

  • Vehicle identification and tracking

  • Protein structure identification

  • Sonar signal interpretation

-      Interpreter mode      -

This pattern is often used to design components to interpret programs written in a dedicated language , It mainly specifies how to estimate program lines , A statement or expression written in a specific language . The basic idea is to design a class for each language symbol .

application

  • Database query language , Such as SQL

  • The language used to describe a communication protocol

-      Architecture pattern comparison      -

Pattern
advantage
shortcoming

Hierarchical mode

A low-level service can be used by different high-level services ;
Hierarchical results are easier to standardize , Because each level can be clearly defined
Changes within the hierarchy do not affect other layers

It's not a pervasive Architecture ;
In some cases , You need to skip some of these layers

CS Pattern

Easy to model series of services , For client request

Requests are usually responded to in different threads on the server ;
Because different clients have different forms , Inter process communication can cause a lot of load

A master-slave mode

accuracy —— The execution of the service is delegated to different slave modules

The slave module is independent : No shared state ;
Communication delay between master and slave modules may be a problem , Especially in real-time systems .

Pipe filter mode

Support concurrent processing , Where input 、 When the output consists of data streams , The filter starts calculating as soon as it receives the data ;
Easy to add filters , The system is easy to expand ;
Filters are reusable , You can create different pipeline flows by recombining existing filters .

Overall efficiency is limited by the slowest filter program ;
When passing from one filter to another , There is a load of data conversion

The proxy pattern

Allow objects to be dynamically modified 、 increase 、 Delete 、 relocation , Content distribution is transparent to developers

Service description needs to be standardized

P2P Pattern

Support decentralization operations ;
It is highly stable for the failure of any node ;
Highly scalable in terms of resources and computing power

There is no guarantee of service quality , Because the nodes cooperate voluntarily ;
It's hard to be safe ;
Performance depends on the number of nodes

Event bus mode

It's easy to add new publishers to the system 、 Subscribers and connections ;
Effective for highly distributed applications

Scalability can be a problem , Because all information is transmitted through the same time bus

MVC Pattern

The first mock exam is easy to build multiple views , You can connect or disconnect at runtime

Added complexity , User actions can lead to many unnecessary updates

Blackboard mode

Easy to add new applications ;
It's easy to extend the structure in the data space

It's hard to modify the structure of a data space , Because all applications will be affected ;
Synchronization and access control may be required

Interpreter mode

May support highly dynamic behavior ;
For end-user programmability ;
Increased flexibility , Because it's easy to replace an interpreter

Because interpretive languages are usually slower than compiled languages , So performance can be a problem

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