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An article will introduce you to CSS3 background knowledge

2020-11-06 20:48:29 Python advanced

CSS3 Contains several new background properties , Provides greater control of background elements .

One 、 Browser support

The number in the table specifies the first browser version that fully supports this property .

After the number -webkit- perhaps -moz- You need to specify the prefix when you use it .

attribute Chrome Firefox Safari Opera IE
background-image ( Multi background ) 4.0 9.0 3.6 3.1 11.5
background-size 4.0 1.0 -webkit- 9.0 4.0 3.6 -moz- 4.1 3.0 -webkit- 10.5 10.0
background-origin 1.0 9.0 4.0 3.0 10.5
background-clip 4.0 9.0 4.0 3.0 10.5

Two 、CSS3 Multi background

CSS3 Allows you to add multiple background images to an element , By using background-image attribute . Different background images are separated by commas , The images are superimposed together ,

example : There are two background images , The first image is the background image ( In the lower right corner ) And the second image is a GIF Moving graph ( In the upper left corner ).

The code is as follows :

<!DOCTYPE HTML>
<meta charset="utf-8">
<title> project </title>
<head>
<style>
    #example1 {

    background-image: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg), url(img/17I_hd.mp4.gif);
    background-position: right bottom, left top;
    background-repeat: no-repeat, repeat;
}
</style>
</head>
<html>

<body>
 <div id="example1">
    <h1>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h1>
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
    <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>
</body>

</html>

You can use separate background properties ( As shown above ) Or background abbreviation property to specify multiple background images .

The following example uses background shorthand

The above example , It has the same result )

#example1 {
    background: url(img_flwr.gif) right bottom no-repeat, url(paper.gif) left top repeat;
}

1. CSS3 Background dimensions

CSS3 background-size Property allows you to specify the size of the background image .

stay CSS3 The previous background image size is the actual size of the image .CSS3 Allows us to use background images in different contexts .

size You can specify the length 、 percentage , Or by using a keyword : contain perhaps cover.

Example : The background image of the picture is much smaller than the original image ( In pixels ):

The code is as follows :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title> project </title>
  <style>
    #example1 {
        border: 1px solid black;
        background:url(img_flwr.gif);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        padding:15px;
    }

    #example2 {
        border: 1px solid black;
        background:url(img_flwr.gif);
        background-size: 100px 80px;
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        padding:15px;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>

  <p> Original background :</p>
  <div id="example1">
    <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h2>
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
    <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>

  <p> Zoom background image :</p>
  <div id="example2">
    <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h2>
    <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
    <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>

</body>
</html> 

background-size The two possible values for an attribute are :contain and cover.

The background image with keyword scale should be as large as possible ( But its width and height must be in the content area ). therefore , According to the scale of the background image and the location of the background area , It may not be covered by the background image .

cover Key words zoom background image , The content area completely covers the background image ( Its width and height are equal to or greater than the content of the range ). therefore , Some parts of the background image may not be visible in the background area .

The following example demonstrates the use of contain and cover

#div1 {
    background: url(img_flower.jpg);
    background-size: contain;
    background-repeat: no-repeat;
}
#div2 {
    background: url(img_flower.jpg);
    background-size: cover;
    background-repeat: no-repeat;
}

2. Define background images of multiple sizes

background-size Property also accepts multiple background values ( Separate the list with commas ), When dealing with multiple backgrounds .

The following example specifies three background images , Each image has a different background-size value :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

    <head>
        <meta charset="UTF-8">
        <title> project </title>
        <style>
            #example1 {
                background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg) left top no-repeat, url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg) right bottom no-repeat, url(img/17I_hd.mp4.gif) left top repeat;
                padding: 15px;
                background-size: 50px, 130px, auto;
                color: white;
            }
</style>
    </head>

    <body>

        <div id="example1">
            <h1>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h1>
            <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
            <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
        </div>

    </body>

</html>


3. Full size background image

If you want to have a background image on a website that covers the entire browser window ..

Requirements are as follows :

Images that fill the entire page ( There is no blank space )

  1. Zoom image

  2. Image center page

  3. No scroll bar

The following example shows how to use HTML Elements (HTML The element is always the height of the browser window ). Then set a fixed center on the background . And then use background-size Property to adjust its size :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title> project </title>
  <style>
    html {
      background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg) no-repeat center fixed;
      background-size: cover;
    }
</style>
</head>
<body>

  <h1> Background image of the whole page </h1>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper
    suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>

</body>
</html>


3、 ... and 、 attribute

1. background-origin attribute

CSS3 background-origin Property specifies where to locate in the background image .

This property has three different values :

border-box : The background image starts at the top left corner of the frame .

padding-box :( Default ) Background image from the top left corner of the filled edge .

content-box : Background image from the top left corner of the content

The following example illustrates background-origin attribute :

#example1 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
    }

    #example2 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        background-origin: border-box;
    }

    #example3 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        background-origin: content-box;
    }

Complete code :


<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <title> Programming dictionary </title>
  <style>
    #example1 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
    }

    #example2 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        background-origin: border-box;
    }

    #example3 {
        border: 10px solid black;
        padding: 35px;
        background: url(img/fy_indexBg.jpg);
        background-repeat: no-repeat;
        background-origin: content-box;
    }                
</style>
</head>
<body>

  <p> No,  background-origin (padding-box  Default ):</p>
  <div id="example1">
  <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h2>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
  <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>

  <p>background-origin: border-box:</p>
  <div id="example2">
  <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h2>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
  <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>

  <p>background-origin: content-box:</p>
  <div id="example3">
  <h2>Lorem Ipsum Dolor</h2>
  <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p>
  <p>Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.</p>
  </div>

</body>
</html>

2. background-clip attribute

CSS3 background-clip Property specifies the drawing area of the background .

The attribute has three different values :

border-box - ( Default ) The background is the outer edge of the frame of the painting padding-box- The background is shown to the outer edge of the filler .content-box - The background is painted in the content box

Here's an example of background-clip attribute :

#example1 {
    border: 10px dotted black;
    padding: 35px;
    background: yellow;
    background-clip: content-box;
}

Four 、 summary

This paper mainly introduces CSS background , adopt CSS Realize multi background display , Customize some size display format ,background-origin And the application of multiple attributes , A wealth of cases to help you better understand .

I hope you can try it yourself , When it's done , There will always be all kinds of problems , Don't hold your eyes high or your hands low , Do it frequently , Can understand more deeply .

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