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It's time for your financial report to change to a more advanced style -- financial analysis cockpit
2020-11-06 20:07:11 【The sail is soft】
however , This time at the end of the year , Remove the usual financial statements , There are also financial reports on different topics ： In this department , The director of , That theme ...... The CFO even needs to do a variety of data analysis around the operation .
Speaking of this , Many people may not be able to analyze it clearly Financial statements 、 The difference between financial reporting and financial analysis , Let's first explain ：
Financial statements It's the conventional cash flow statement 、 Balance sheet 、 Income statement , This is for outsiders to see , For example, investors , Reflecting the operation of an enterprise . Although these tables can also be used within the company , But it's not easy to use , Generally, internal financial reports are used internally .
Financial report That's the internal report , Is to provide data reports to the company's internal managers , General managers report what they need , According to the demand . Financial reporting covers a wide range of issues , Except for the financial accounts , There are a lot of businesses like sales 、 marketing 、 Financial data will be involved in supply chain, etc , This kind of information is usually summarized and displayed , So that the managers have some understanding of the business operation . therefore , Financial report is actually a summary of the data , Usually there will be a fixed report format or a fixed indicator display .
financial analysis The point is to analyze , It's a process of judgment , On the one hand, it is to evaluate the current financial situation and operating results , Find the problem , The analysis reason , Make a decision ; On the other hand, it forecasts the future business performance , Evaluate future investment , Affect the future direction of business . Financial analysis is different from financial reporting , Financial reporting is more like a labor process , And financial analysis is more like the job of the helmsman .
We often make fun of financial people Cousin, cousin , In fact, it's just a report form , Summarize the data every day 、 Input data ,excel Submit the summary format ,“ Manual operators ”, It's not really financial data analysis , And I didn't use much financial knowledge .
For example, you sort all kinds of financial data into Excel, Form a summary report , Make a more advanced form , Then print it into a thick stack and give it to the leader , Every month and every quarter goes round and round .—— This is the process of financial reporting .
For example, you can visually report financial data according to the theme , And then try to analyze the decline in profits from the data , The reason for the rise in costs . And then to marketing 、 Production and other related links to find out the cause of the business —— This process is actually the process of financial analysis .
So much has been said before , In fact, I would like to encourage the financial people to do analysis and do a good job in financial reports . The end of the year is a critical year , On the one hand, financial reports affect the direction of the company's operation this year and next year ; On the other hand, it is also related to our financial people who can go back home happily for the new year .
that , How to make a beautiful financial report satisfactory to the senior management at the end of the year ？
Since the purpose of financial reporting is to give managers an idea of the company's current status , Have a clear idea of the future , In fact, it is very important to show what indicators and how to show them .
I've seen a lot of Finance leader In the summary of the report, table 1、 surface 2、 surface 3 A list of , The data is not finely aggregated , The logic between the tables can't be understood by non-financial people , There is no indication where the data came from , It's a bit of a deal . Of course , There's also some finance leader More professional , Try to make the report more specialized and beautiful , But there are also problems with this , For example, I don't know what indicators to show to managers , What kind of chart does the data show , I don't know how to report （PPT、Excel,web On-line ） Exhibition .
Actually , One of the most popular ways to do this is “ Financial analysis cockpit ”, All kinds of business information will be refined , Select the core business financial indicators to reflect the truth of the business . Generally speaking, financial results are determined by non-financial factors , Such as strategy 、 Business model 、 user 、 product 、 Technology, etc. , therefore “ Financial cockpit ” It's not just about financial indicators , We also need to go deep into the business and external environment to find the real value drivers , To make high-quality decisions .
Let's show you two simple examples ：
This is a GM cockpit and dashboard style based on the management reporting perspective ：
This is a visual display of a control panel based on the financial manager's perspective ：
that , How to do financial analysis cockpit
cockpit / How is the dashboard designed ？ just Excel The model? ？ Absolutely not ！ such as ：
Where is the data coming from , What caliber ？
- How to consider the indicators in this , Can charts be linked to each other ？
- The graph inside shows 、 Color matching 、 How the layout is implemented ？
- How often is this data updated , Is it real-time update
- Is this done by the finance department or IT The technical department does ？
Tool implementation level
If you have ready-made source data , That's very easy , A lot less consolidated data 、 Data processing , Just think about how to make a beautiful and valuable cockpit .
A lot of tools can implement , Everybody can use it Excel、 A little bit of code technology can be used Echarts Front end drawing , And then there's the analysis BI Tools . I've used all three of them , Personal feelings ：
Excel It's just that the threshold is low , Actually make a cockpit , I can't help writing macro code 、 Can operate various functions skillfully , Can use table interaction and difference excel Document interaction , The difficulty is not low , It's hard to bite off without taking a class . And data, if it exists Excel Of , Data addition and maintenance is also a problem .
Ecahrts Yes, you can write JS, If you've learned technology, you can , If you don't know the technology, just ignore it , Or find the company IT Development .
BI Tools are highly recommended , such as FineBI, They are used to do analysis and visualization reports , The operation is similar to Excel The PivotTable of , The advantage is the processing of data , The design of visual chart basically does not involve code , At most, write two functions for data processing , It's relatively easy to get started .
So the next step is to FineBI Tools, for example , Let's talk about the production process and key points .
1、 Business needs research
① Mainly according to the management cockpit display scene , Extract key indicators .
② Then determine the dimensions that each indicator presents , It's the proportion class 、 Trend class 、 Ratio class .... For example, revenue , It's a way of comparison （ It's like a comparison ）, Or in the form of distribution .
③ Finally, the type of visualization chart is determined according to the dimension displayed ： Histogram 、 Broken line diagram 、 Map 、 The pie chart ... If you're not sure what chart to use ,finebi According to the data you select , Automatically recommend charts .
2、 Visual design of cockpit
according to finebi The production process of , First import / Linked data —— Processing data （ Table merge 、 Field calculation 、 New, etc ）—— Design a visual chart around the indicators —— Layout of cockpit interface .
then , Typesetting needs attention , To set up according to the business indicators set before ：
- Lord ： The core business indicators are in the middle 、 Take up a large area , Most of them are dynamic maps
- Time ： Secondary indicators are on both sides of the screen , Most of them are charts
- Auxiliary ： The content of auxiliary analysis , It can be linked by drilling 、 The carousel shows
Last , After the design is finished, it goes online , Look at the key visual elements 、 Font size 、 Page dynamics 、 Whether graphs, charts, etc. are displayed as expected 、 Whether there is deformation 、 Dislocation, etc .
In depth methodology level
Just at the production level , If you have a complete and cleaner data source . But in many cases ： The company's data are scattered in various business systems , For example, sales data in CRM, Financial data in ERP, The data needs to get through . In addition, there is a mature financial analysis system , Because you need to sort out the indicators in the early stage , The company is big , This needs to be done specially .
therefore , Most of the time, we will do the company's financial analysis system and finally show the cockpit , This is the process ：
1、 Establish a financial system in line with the company's business logic ;
2、 Collect existing financial statements （ data ）, Sort out the financial indicators , Including the determination of coding rules 、 Standard definition, etc ;
3、 build （ Or integration ） Report platform , Unified financial statement management （ Fill in and process ）;
4、 Combine finance with linked data from other business units , Display in the same cockpit , Through the multi-dimensional comparative analysis, we found the hidden problems , Provide data for decision makers .
The tools used in this process are usually BI Tools or reporting tools , That's why I didn't recommend it at first Excel Do financial analysis of the reasons for the cockpit ！
本文为[The sail is soft]所创，转载请带上原文链接，感谢
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