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A brief history of neural networks

2020-11-06 01:28:19 Artificial intelligence meets pioneer

author |SANYA4 compile |VK source |Analytics Vidhya

Introduce

Now neural networks are everywhere . Companies are squandering on hardware and talent , To make sure they can build the most complex neural networks , And the best deep learning solution .

Although deep learning is a fairly old subset of machine learning , But it was not until the 20 century 10 s , It gets the recognition it deserves . today , It's all over the world , Attracted the attention of the public .

In this paper , I want to take a slightly different approach to neural networks , And understand how they are formed .

The origin of neural networks

The earliest reports in the field of neural networks began with 20 century 40 years , warren · McCullough and Walter · Pitts tried to build a simple neural network with circuits .

The figure below shows a MCP Neuron . If you're studying high school physics , You'll find that it looks like a simple NOR door .

l The paper shows the basic idea of using signals , And how to make decisions by transforming the input provided .

McCulloch and Pitts This paper provides a way to describe brain function in abstract terms , And the computational power of neural networks can be shown to be huge .

Despite its pioneering significance , But this paper hardly attracts people's attention , Until about 6 After year , Donald · Herb ( The figure below ) Published a paper , It emphasizes that neural pathways are strengthened every time they are used .

please remember , Computers were still in their infancy ,IBM stay 1981 The first PC(IBM5150).

Fast forward to 90 years , Many studies on artificial neural networks have been published . Rosenblat is in 20 century 50 The first perceptron was invented in the s ,1989 year Yann LeCun The back propagation algorithm is successfully implemented in Bell lab . here we are 20 century 90 years , The U.S. Postal Service has been able to read the postcode on the envelope .

What we know today LSTM Is in 1997 Invented in .

If 90 So many foundations have been laid in the s , Why wait until 2012 It is only years before we can use neural network to complete the task of deep learning ?

Hardware and the rise of the Internet

One of the main challenges in deep learning research is the lack of repeatable research . up to now , These developments are all theory driven , Because the availability of reliable data is low , Limited hardware resources .

In the past 20 years , Great progress has been made in hardware and the Internet . stay 20 century 90 years ,IBM Personal computer RAM by 16KB. stay 2010 year , On average, there is 4GB about !

Now? , We can train a small model on our computer , This is in 90 The age is unimaginable .

The game market also played an important role in this revolution , image NVIDIA and AMD Such companies are investing heavily in supercomputers , To provide a high-end virtual experience .

With the development of the Internet , It's much easier to create and distribute datasets for machine learning tasks .

from Wikipedia It's easier to learn and collect pictures in .

2010 year : Our era of deep learning

ImageNet:2009 year , The beginning of modern deep learning era , Li Feifei of Stanford University founded ImageNet, This is a large visualization dataset , It has been hailed as a project that has spawned the artificial intelligence revolution around the world .

As early as 2006 year , Lee is a new professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign . Her colleagues will constantly discuss new algorithms to make better decisions . However , She saw the flaws in their plans .

If you train on data sets that reflect the real world , So the best algorithms don't work well either .ImageNet By more than 2 Ten thousand categories of 1400 Ten thousand images , up to now , Still the cornerstone of object recognition technology .

Open competition :2009 year ,Netflix There was a program called Netflix Prize Open competition of , To predict the user ratings of movies .2009 year 9 month 21 Japan ,BellKor The practical chaos team of 10.06% The advantage of beating Netflix My own algorithm , To obtain the 100 $10000 bonus .

Kaggle Founded on 2010 year , It's a platform for all people around the world to hold machine learning competitions . It makes researchers 、 Engineers and native programmers are able to overcome the limits of complex data tasks .

Before the AI boom , The investment in AI is about 2000 Thousands of dollars . To 2014 year , This investment has increased 20 times , Google 、Facebook Amazon and other market leaders set aside money , Further research on future AI products . This new wave of investment has increased the number of recruiters in the field of deep learning from hundreds to tens of thousands .

ending

Despite the slow start , But deep learning has become an inevitable part of our lives . from Netflix and YouTube Recommended to language translation engine , From facial recognition and medical diagnosis to autopilot , There is no field that deep learning doesn't touch .

These advances broaden the future scope and application of neural networks in improving our quality of life .

Artificial intelligence is not our future , It's our present , It's just beginning !

Link to the original text :https://www.analyticsvidhya.com/blog/2020/10/how-does-the-gradient-descent-algorithm-work-in-machine-learning/

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