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Deep understanding of common methods of JS array

2020-11-06 01:17:16 :::::::

Array as an important data type , Except for the basic pop、push、shift、unshift In addition to a few methods , There are a lot of practical methods that are also our essential skills .

Suppose we have a team of people , Here's the picture :

We need to sort or filter them ( Metaphors are sorted by height , Screening women, etc ), We can all operate through arrays .

notes : Here's more about how to use , For detailed methods, please refer to : Array | MDN

Take out some people

First we define the data with an array ( For the sake of simplicity , We don't have so much data ):

var aPerson = ['person1', 'person2', 'person3', 'person4', 'person5', 'person6']
slice

Now suppose we're going to take three people , We can use slice() Method to select three people , as follows :

var aP3 = aPerson.slice(1, 4);
console.log(aPerson); // ['person1', 'person2', 'person3', 'person4', 'person5', 'person6']
console.log(aP3); // ["person2", "person3", "person4"]

This method returns a start to end ( Not including the end ) A portion of the selected array is shallowly copied to a new array object . The original array will not change .

Please refer to :slice

splice

We can also use it splice() Method to select , as follows :

var aPerson = ['person1', 'person2', 'person3', 'person4', 'person5', 'person6']
var aP3 = aPerson.splice(1, 3);
console.log(aPerson); // ["person1", "person5", "person6"]
console.log(aP3); // ["person2", "person3", "person4"]

This method changes the contents of the array by deleting existing elements or adding new elements . The original array will change .

about slice Come on ,splice Will be more powerful , The main difference lies in :

  • slice Do not change the original array , and splice It will change.
  • slice The second parameter of is the index value up to , and splice The number of intercepts to be intercepted
  • splice It can also be used to add elements ,slice Do not place

Please refer to :splice

concat

Except to pull some people out of the line , We can also merge another team and this team into a new team , as follows :

var aPerson1 = ['person1', 'person2', 'person3', 'person4', 'person5', 'person6']
var aPerson2 = ['person7', 'person8', 'person9'];

var aPerson3 = aPerson1.concat(aPerson2);
console.log(aPerson3); // ["person1", "person2", "person3", "person4", "person5", "person6", "person7", "person8", "person9"]

concat() Method is used to merge two or more arrays . This method does not change the existing array , Instead, it returns a new array .

Please refer to :concat

Order of height and height

Now we define a set of data in terms of height , as follows :

var aHeight = ['170', '165', '178', '183', '168', '175', '173'];
reverse

We can use it directly reverse() Method to achieve reverse order , as follows :

aHeight.reverse();
console.log(aHeight); // ["173", "175", "168", "183", "178", "165", "170"]

This method is very simple , There are no parameters , Is to change the order of the array , The first element will be the last , The last one will be the first . In general, it is seldom used .

sort

Compared with reverse() Come on ,sort() There are more places to use the method . Let's start with a short to high order , as follows :

aHeight.sort();
console.log(aHeight); // ["165", "168", "170", "173", "175", "178", "183"]

sort() The default sort of method is ascending , The code above shows . But we can also pass in a function , Specify how it is sorted , For example, let it be arranged in descending order :

aHeight.sort(function(a, b){
    return b - a;
});
console.log(aHeight); // ["183", "178", "175", "173", "170", "168", "165"]

Please refer to :sort

Stochastic ranking

In addition to the normal ascending and descending order , In fact, we often use random sorting , Such as our red envelope , Shuffling in chess and card games is an application of random sorting .

When using random sorting , We have to use a random function Math.random(). This function returns a floating point number , The numbers are in the range [0,1).

So we can use this randomly generated floating-point number with 0.5 Size comparison , That result may be greater than or less than 0, Finally, we get our random sort .

//  First run 
aHeight.sort(function(){
    return 0.5 - Math.random();
});
console.log(aHeight); // ["183", "168", "175", "173", "170", "165", "178"]

//  Second operation 
aHeight.sort(function(){
    return 0.5 - Math.random();
});
console.log(aHeight); // ["170", "183", "175", "168", "173", "165", "178"]

Because it's random , So every run is different , We can run it a few more times .

Conditional screening test

Now we define two sets of data in terms of skin color and age , as follows (yellow It means yellow people ,white It means white people ,black It means black people ):

var aColor = ['yellow', 'black', 'white', 'white', 'yellow', 'yellow'];
var aAge = [19, 30, 25, 37, 18, 35];

Test for compliance

every

every() Method is used to test whether all the data of the array has passed the test of the specified function , If by returning true, otherwise false.

Metaphors judge whether all people are older than 20 year , as follows :

var ageTest = aAge.every(function(item, index){
    return item > 20;
})

console.log(ageTest); // false

every If every data in the array satisfies this condition, it will return true, Otherwise, it would be false.

Please refer to :every

some

Corresponding every() Method , One more some() Method , Indicates that as long as any data in the array satisfies the condition, it will return ture, If none of the data is satisfied false.

To judge whether someone is older than 32 year , as follows :

var ageTest2 = aAge.some(function(item, index){
    return item > 32;
})

console.log(ageTest2); // true

Please refer to :some

includes

includes() Method is used to determine whether the current array contains a specified value , If it is , Then return to true, Otherwise return to false.

To judge whether there is 35 A man of years old , as follows :

var ageTest3 = aAge.includes(35);
var ageTest4 = aAge.includes(28);

console.log(ageTest3); // true
console.log(ageTest4); // false

Condition screening

filter

I want to choose all the yellow skin people , as follows :

var aYellow = aColor.filter(function(item, index) {
    return item === 'yellow';
})

console.log(aYellow); // ["yellow", "yellow", "yellow"]

This method returns an array of data that satisfies the condition .

Please refer to :filter

Let everyone do something

forEach

forEach() Method to perform the provided function once for each element of the array , The method does not return a value .

It's a metaphor for everyone to get a red envelope from the boss during the festival , as follows :

var aPerson = ['person1', 'person2', 'person3', 'person4', 'person5', 'person6']

aPerson.forEach(function(item, index) {
    console.log(item + ' Got  200  Yuan a red envelope ')
})

Please refer to :forEach

map

map() Method to create a new array , The result is that each element in the array calls a supplied function .

Everyone's salary is increased 5000 element , as follows :

//  First, construct a salary data 
var aSalary = [8000, 7000, 1500, 9000, 22000];

var aNewSalary = aSalary.map(function(item, index) {
    return item + 5000;
})

console.log(aNewSalary); // [13000, 12000, 6500, 14000, 27000]

Please refer to :map

other

In addition to the methods mentioned above , There are also some common methods , Such as indexOf、join wait , I will not explain it here , For details, please refer to : Array | MDN

All in all , The array method must be familiar with , If you really can't remember , You have to know that there is such a thing , I know how to look it up later , Because we need these methods to deal with data when doing business .

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