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Just now, I popularized two unique skills of login to Xuemei

2020-11-06 01:17:11 Yin Jihuan

Today, I'd like to talk about a basic topic , It's how to log in ? Suitable for new friends .

Huashan Session Desperate learning

Session We call it Session control , Is a solution to maintain session state on the server side . Generally speaking, it is when the client accesses the server , The corresponding information will be stored in the server , Generate a Session ID Return to the client , The client will bring it next time it comes Session ID, So you can identify the visitor .

Bring... With you in the request Session ID The most common way is through Cookie To carry ,Cookie It is a mechanism for client to save user information , In the browser environment , The request will automatically come with Cookie Information , The server can also get Session ID.

When implementing the login logic in the back end , First get HttpSession object , And then through setAttribute() To set the login user information , Such as user ID. Verify if you have logged in getAttribute() To get the corresponding Session Information , If not , It proves that you have not logged in or the session has failed .

about Tomcat, Jetty For these containers ,Session Is a piece of memory space opened up in the server , The storage structure is Map.

Tomcat Of Session The implementation class is StandardSession.

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Distributed Session Solution

If your application is a single node deployment , This scenario uses web Container implemented Session There's no problem with the mechanism . Once there's too much pressure , When multi node deployment is needed ,Session Distributed support is needed .

Look at the picture below , When two are deployed Tomcat When , adopt Nginx Load balancing , The first request was forwarded to Tomcat1, Session Information stored in Tomcat1 above . The second request was forwarded to Tomcat2 above , however Tomcat2 There's nothing on it Session Information , This is multi node Session There will be problems .

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Session Copy

Tomcat Built in Session Copy function , It's your Session Is in Tomcat1 The result of ,Tomcat1 You will be Session Sync to Tomcat2, So when your request arrives Tomcat2 When , You'll be able to get your identity information .

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This kind of scheme is often seen in other frameworks , such as Spring Cloud In the system Eureka Registry Center , It also uses replication to synchronize the registry information .

About Tomcat Session Please refer to the official document for copying the relevant configuration :https://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/cluster-howto.html

Sticky conversation

A sticky session is a request for the same user , Always forward to only one Tocmat On an instance of , So even if it's not done Session Copy , No problem . If a node fails, the access will fail .

The common way is to IP do Hash Forward ,IP Not very reliable , Because it will change . stay Nginx There is one of them. nginx-sticky-module This third-party module is used to add a stickiness Cookie, The viscosity cookie Always forward to the same server .

nginx-sticky-module Will be in Cookie Record a value in to identify which node the current request needs to be forwarded to , The first time you don't have it, you forward it first , Then write... Before the response is sent to the client Cookie. All subsequent requests will be in Cookie Find the corresponding logo , Then forward to the fixed node .

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Session Centralized storage

Session Replication takes up server resources , Affect performance . There is a single point of failure risk in sticky conversations . Better distributed Session The way is centralized storage .

The so-called centralized storage is the unified storage of session information in a certain place , image Tomcat And so on. Web The server itself does not store session information , In this way, the back-end service is stateless , Easy to expand at any time .

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As for the implementation scheme, there are many , You can do it yourself HttpSession Do the corresponding storage read logic , You can also use open source solutions . such as Spring Session It's a good open source solution , Easy to get started , Support multiple storage methods , such as Redis, Mysql etc. .

If you write by hand Spring Session Principles of interest , You can also refer to my previous course :http://cxytiandi.com/course/5

Shaolin Token Desperate learning

Token Authentication is one of the mainstream authentication methods ,Token The biggest advantage is no state , And you don't have to store session information . That is to say through Token You can know who the current user is visiting , There is no need to Web Get from the container's memory , There is no need to centrally manage session storage to get .

Token There are many ways to generate , You can define your own fixed format , For example, it contains users ID, User name and other information . You can also use the current mainstream JWT The way .

JWT(JSON Web Token) It is a kind of implementation based on JSON Open standards for .JWT The statement of identity is usually used to transfer authenticated user identity information between identity providers and service providers , In order to get resources from the resource server .

For example, when a user logs in , The basic idea is to provide the user name and password to the authentication server , The server verifies the validity of the information submitted by the user ; If the validation is successful , Will generate and return a Token, Then ask the user to bring this Token , The server can identify the identity of the request .

JWT It consists of three parts ,

  • The first part is the head (Header);
  • The second part is the message body (Payload);
  • The third part is signature (Signature).

One JWT Generated Token The format is :

token = encodeBase64(header) + ‘.’ + encodeBase64(payload) + ‘.’ + encodeBase64(signature)

The information in the head usually consists of two parts , The type of token and the signature algorithm used , Consider the following code :

{ “alg”: “HS256”, “typ”: “JWT” }

The message body can carry some information needed by the application , Such as user ID, The code is as follows :

{ “id”: “1001”, “name”: “yinjihuan”}

A signature is used to determine whether a message has been tampered with on the path of delivery , So as to ensure the security of data , The format is as follows :

HMACSHA256( base64UrlEncode(header) + “.” + base64UrlEncode(payload), secret)

Through these three parts, we make up our JSON Web Token.

Please refer to Github:https://github.com/jwtk/jjwt

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As shown in the figure above : Request arrival Tomcat after , You can call individual Token The service is carried out Token Generation , Can also be Token The generation logic of is encapsulated in a jar Bag to use . It should be noted that if you use the embedded method , Corresponding Token The encryption configuration should be consistent , Otherwise, the verification will fail .

Token It's a little bad that you can't take the initiative to let it fail , For example, we use Session Scene , User log out , Direct will Session The message can be deleted at the server , Even with the same Session Ask for information , The server can't find the corresponding information .

Token It's an encrypted string , It contains user information , encryption algorithm , Expiration time . If the expiration time is set to be long , That means you can use it before the expiration time .

If you want to realize the function of logging out , Since you can't be right about Token Its own expiration time is modified , Then you can use a blacklist mechanism to filter . Will log out of Token Store it , Use the place to match whether it's logged out , And then intercept it .

About author : Yin Jihuan , Simple technology enthusiasts ,《Spring Cloud Microservices - Full stack technology and case analysis 》, 《Spring Cloud Microservices introduction Actual combat and advanced 》 author , official account Ape world Originator .

I have compiled a complete set of learning materials , Those who are interested can search through wechat 「 Ape world 」, Reply key 「 Learning materials 」 Get what I've sorted out Spring Cloud,Spring Cloud Alibaba,Sharding-JDBC Sub database and sub table , Task scheduling framework XXL-JOB,MongoDB, Reptiles and other related information .

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